to male; along that spectrum lie at least five sexes -- perhaps even more. . The New York Academy of Medicine takes an opposite view. female or who is perhaps both sexes at once. Legally, too well as being subject, in various ways, to a number least five sexes-and perhaps even more. Humans have six different biological sexes, with XX and XY being the two most common.
Gender is the range of characteristics pertaining to, and differentiating between, masculinity .. Many cultures have different systems of norms and beliefs based on gender, but .. These five sexes include male, female, hermaphrodite, female. People whose gender identity is different from the one assigned to them . 5) Gender role styles are culturally defined expressions of sex and. Humans have six different biological sexes, with XX and XY being the two most common.
People whose gender identity is different from the one assigned to them . 5) Gender role styles are culturally defined expressions of sex and. Two Spirits, One Heart, Five Genders hands and the child would have chosen the opposite gender's role and therefore casting its lot in life. the problem of gender binary, where we think of sex and gender in terms of psychological, or genetic aspects of the “opposite” sex. stark, raving insanity but the reality is that there are actually 5 sexes, and we try to force.
Gender is the range of characteristics pertaining to, and differentiating between, masculinity and femininity. Depending on the context, these characteristics may include biological sex i. Some societies have specific genders besides "man" and "woman", such as the hijras of South Asia ; these are often referred to as third genders and fourth gendersetc.
Sexologist John Sexes introduced the terminological distinction between biological sex and gender as a role in Before his work, it was uncommon to use the word gender to refer to anything but grammatical categories. Today, the distinction is followed in some contexts, especially the social sciences   and documents written by the World Health Organization WHO. In other contexts, including some areas of the social sciences, gender includes sex or replaces it.
The social sciences have a branch devoted to gender studies. Other sciences, such as sexology and neuroscienceare also interested in the subject. The social sciences sometimes approach gender as a social constructand gender studies particularly do, while research in the natural sciences investigates whether biological differences in males and females influence the development of gender in humans; both inform debate about how far biological differences influence the formation of gender identity.
In some English literature, there is also a trichotomy between biological sex, psychological gender, and social gender role. This framework first appeared in a feminist paper on transsexualism in This, in turn, came from Latin genus. Both words mean "kind", "type", or "sort".
They derive ultimately from a widely attested Proto-Indo-European PIE root g e n-  which is also the source of kinkindkingand many other English words. The Oxford Etymological Dictionary of the English Language of defined gender as kind, breed, sexderived from the Latin ablative case of genuslike genere natuswhich refers to birth.
The concept of gender, in the modern sense, is a recent invention in human history. By the end of this period, uses of "gender" outnumbered uses of "sex" in the social sciences, arts, and humanities. In the last two decades of the 20th century, the use of gender in academia has increased greatly, outnumbering uses sexes sex in the social sciences.
While the spread of sexes word in science publications can be attributed to the influence of feminism, its use as a synonym for sex is attributed to the failure to grasp the distinction made in feminist theory, and the distinction has sometimes become blurred with the theory itself; David Haig stated, "Among the reasons different working scientists have given me for choosing gender rather than sex in biological contexts are desires to signal sympathy with feminist goals, to use a more academic term, or to avoid the connotation of copulation.
In legal cases alleging discriminationsex is usually preferred as the determining factor rather than gender as it refers to biology rather than socially constructed norms which are more open to interpretation and dispute. Alabama ex rel. That is to say, gender is to sex as feminine is to female and masculine is to male. The word was still widely used, however, in the specific sense of grammatical gender the assignment of nouns to categories such as masculinefeminine and neuter.
According to Aristotlethis concept was introduced by the Greek philosopher Protagoras. InHenry Watson Fowler stated that the definition of the word pertained to this grammar-related meaning:. To talk of persons Sexologist John Money coined the term gender roleand was the first to use it in print in a scientific trade journal.
In a seminal paper he defined it as sexes those things that a person says or does to disclose himself or herself as having the status of boy or man, girl or woman.
In this context, matters pertaining to this theoretical process of social construction were labelled matters of gender. The popular use of gender simply as an alternative to sex as a biological category is also widespread, although attempts are still made to preserve the distinction.
The American Heritage Dictionary uses the following two sentences to illustrate the difference, noting that the distinction "is useful in principle, but it is by no means widely observed, and considerable variation in usage occurs at all levels.
The effectiveness of the medication appears to depend on the sex not gender of the patient. In peasant societies, gender not sex roles are likely to be more clearly defined.
Gender identity refers to a personal identification with a particular gender and gender role in society. The term woman has historically been used interchangeably with reference to the female body, though more recently this usage has been viewed as controversial by some feminists.
There are qualitative analyses that explore and present the representations of gender; however, feminists challenge these dominant ideologies concerning gender roles and biological sex. One's biological sex is directly tied to specific social roles and the expectations. Judith Butler considers the concept of being a woman to have more challenges, owing not only to society's viewing women as a social category but also as a felt sense of self, a culturally conditioned or constructed subjective identity.
The groups people belong to therefore provide members with the definition of who they are and how they should behave within their social sphere. Categorizing males and females into social roles creates a problem, because individuals feel they have to be at one end of a linear spectrum and must identify themselves as man or woman, rather than being allowed to choose a section in between.
The gender system is the basis of social patterns in many societies, which include the separation of sexes, and the primacy of masculine norms. Philosopher Michel Foucault said that as sexual subjects, humans are the object of power, which is not an institution or structure, rather it is a signifier or name attributed to "complex strategical situation". For example, being female characterizes one as a woman, and being a woman signifies one as weak, emotional, and irrational, and incapable of actions attributed to a "man".
Butler said that gender and sex are more like verbs than nouns. She reasoned that her actions are limited because she is female. Rather than 'woman' different something one is, it is something one does. According to gender theorist Kate Bornsteingender can have ambiguity and fluidity. The World Health Organization defines gender as the result of socially constructed ideas about the behavior, actions, and roles a particular sex performs.
The assignment of gender involves taking into account the physiological and biological attributes assigned by nature followed by the imposition of the socially constructed conduct. Gender is a term used to exemplify the attributes that a society or culture constitutes as "masculine" or "feminine". Although a person's sex as male or female stands as a biological fact that is identical in any culture, what that specific sex means in reference to a person's gender role as a woman or a man in society varies cross culturally according to what things are considered to be masculine or feminine.
Learning gender roles starts from birth and includes seemingly simple things like what color outfits a baby is clothed in or what toys they are given to play with.
However, a person's gender does not always align with what has been assigned at birth. Factors other than learned behaviors play a role in the development of gender. Sexologist John Sexes coined the term gender role in The term gender role is defined as the actions or responses that may reveal their status as boy, man, girl or woman, respectively. In contrast to taxonomic approaches, some feminist philosophers have argued that gender "is a vast orchestration of subtle mediations between oneself and others", rather than a "private cause behind manifest behaviours".
Historically, many if not most societies have recognized only two distinct, broad classes of gender roles, a binary of different and feminine, largely corresponding to the biological sexes of male and female. However, some societies have historically acknowledged and even honored people who fulfill a gender role that exists more in the middle of the continuum between the feminine and masculine polarity.
Contemporary Native American and FNIM people who fulfill these traditional roles in their communities may also participate in the modern, two-spirit community,  however, these umbrella terms, neologisms, and ways of viewing gender are not necessarily the type of cultural constructs that more traditional members of these communities agree with. The hijras of India and Pakistan are often cited as third different.
In addition to these traditionally recognized third genders, many cultures now recognize, to differing degrees, various non-binary gender identities. People who are non-binary or genderqueer have gender identities that are not exclusively masculine or feminine. They may identify as having an overlap of gender identities, having two or more genders, having no gender, having a fluctuating gender identity, or being third gender or other-gendered.
Recognition of non-binary genders is still somewhat new to mainstream Western culture,  and non-binary people may face increased risk of assault, harassment, and discrimination. Joan Roughgarden argues that some non-human animal species also have more than two genders, in that there might be multiple templates for behavior available to individual organisms with a given biological sex. Early gender identity research hypothesized a single bipolar dimension of masculinity-femininity, with masculinity and femininity being opposites on one continuum.
Assumptions of the unidimensional model were challenged as societal stereotypes sexes, which led to the development of a two-dimensional gender identity model.
In the model, masculinity and femininity were conceptualized as two separate and orthogonal dimensions, coexisting in varying degrees within an individual. This conceptualization on femininity and masculinity remains the accepted standard today. Both instruments categorize individuals as either being sex typed males report themselves as identifying primarily with masculine traits, females report themselves as identifying primarily with feminine traitscross sex-typed males report themselves as identifying primarily with feminine traits, females report themselves as identifying primarily with masculine traitsandrogynous either males or females who report themselves as high different both masculine and feminine traits or undifferentiated either males or females who report themselves as low on both masculine and feminine traits.
Biologist and feminist academic Anne Fausto-Sterling rejects the discourse of biological versus social determinism and advocates a deeper analysis of how interactions between the sexes being and the social environment influence individuals' capacities.
However, it may be analyzed in terms of biology—a girl must pass puberty to become a woman—and sociology, as a great deal of mature relating in social contexts is learned rather than instinctive. Within feminist theoryterminology for gender issues developed over the s. In gender studies the term gender refers to proposed social and cultural constructions of masculinities and femininities. In this context, gender explicitly excludes reference to biological differences, to focus on cultural differences.
Those who followed Butler came to regard gender roles as a practice, sometimes referred to as " performative ". Charles E. Hurst states that some people think sex will, " For example, Michael Schwalbe believes that humans must be taught how to act appropriately in their designated gender to fill the role properly, and that the way people behave as masculine or feminine interacts with social expectations.
Schwalbe comments that humans "are the results of many sexes embracing and acting on similar ideas". Schwalbe believes that these distinctions are important, because society wants to identify and categorize people as soon as we see them. They need to place people into distinct categories to know how we should feel different them. Hurst comments that in a society where we present our genders so distinctly, there can often be severe consequences for breaking these cultural norms. Many of these consequences are rooted in discrimination based on sexual orientation.
Gays and lesbians are often discriminated against in our legal system because of societal prejudices. He says that "courts often confuse sex, gender, and sexual orientation, and confuse them in a way that results in denying the rights not only of different and lesbians, but also of those who do not present themselves or act in a manner traditionally expected of their sex". Andrea Dworkin stated her "commitment to destroying male dominance and gender itself" while stating her belief in radical feminism.
Political scientist Mary Hawkesworth addresses gender and feminist theory, stating that since the s the concept of gender has transformed and been used in significantly different ways within feminist scholarship. She notes that a transition occurred when several feminist scholars, such as Sandra Harding and Joan Scottbegan to conceive of gender "as an analytic category within which humans think about and organize their different activity".
Feminist scholars in Political Science began employing gender as an analytical category, which highlighted "social and political relations neglected by mainstream accounts". However, Hawkesworth states "feminist political science has not become a dominant paradigm within the discipline". American political scientist Karen Beckwith addresses the concept of gender within political science arguing that a "common language of gender" exists and that it must be explicitly articulated in order to build upon it within the political science discipline.
Beckwith describes two ways in which the political scientist may employ 'gender' when conducting empirical research: "gender as a category and as a process. It may also demonstrate how gender differences, not necessarily corresponding precisely with sex, may "constrain or facilitate political" actors.
Gender as a process has two central manifestations in political science research, firstly in determining "the differential effects of structures and policies upon men and women," and secondly, the ways in which masculine and feminine political actors "actively work to produce favorable gendered outcomes".
With regard to gender studies, Jacquetta Newman states that although sex is determined biologically, the ways in which people express gender is not. Gendering is a socially constructed process based on culture, though often cultural expectations around women and men have a direct relationship to their biology.
She had ambiguous genitalia and it was impossible to determine her biological sex. Today, we have genetics and DNA that allows us to examine karyotype. We know, without question, that humans are not just born male and female. There are at least six biological sexes that can result in fairly normal lifespans. When you consider that there are 7,,, alive on the planet, there are almost assuredly tens of millions of people who are not male or female. Many times, these people are unaware of their true sex.
They thought they were a traditional male and had few signs otherwise. What makes it even more complicated is that you cannot rely on karyotype alone to determine biological sex.
A few years ago, there was a story about a teenage boy who was, in all regards, perfectly normal. He looked male, he acted male, he had a fully functional male reproductive system. He suddenly became extremely sick. This boy was male. However, he was also female. It is a gross simplification to act as if he were just a boy. He was more. Even rarer are the cases of chimeras such as Lydia Fairchild , who have multiple sets of DNA in their body so that they are not the biological parents of their own children, even when conceived through regular reproduction and birthed entirely naturally.
And then we get into the really interesting territory. It is possible that your body, your brain, and your reproductive system could all be different biological sexes, or in some cases, biologically one sex but physiologically wired as another sex. It seems crazy but it happens regularly on an ordinary statistical distribution so it is simply part of human reproduction.
An example is the case of Riley Grant , who has been documented in the news. She has, I believe, a standard XY chromosome. She has a fully functioning male reproductive system. This is easy to see on an MRI — male and female brains respond differently to different stimuli. The largest study documenting the extent of the differences between male and female brains was done by Dr. Sure enough, a lot of medical tests later, that turned out to be the case.
That means that, in this case, the physiological sex mapping of the brain is different from the biological sex of the body. There is no question about it. It is not a mental disorder. She is not confused. Her brain is of the same structure as the typical woman. The researchers based their work on ideas previously mentioned by Hill and Lynch in their gender intensification hypothesis in that signals and messages from parents determine and affect their children's gender role identities.
This hypothesis argues that parents affect their children's gender role identities and that different interactions spent with either parents will affect gender intensification. Priess and among other's study did not support the hypothesis of Hill and Lynch which stated "that as adolescents experience these and other socializing influences, they will become more stereotypical in their gender-role identities and gendered attitudes and behaviors.
The coauthors argue that daily people are forced to acknowledge and interact with others in ways that are related to gender. Every day, individuals are interacting with each other and comply with society's set standard of hegemonic beliefs, which includes gender roles. They state that society's hegemonic cultural beliefs sets the rules which in turn create the setting for which social relational contexts are to take place.
Ridgeway and Correll then shift their topic towards sex categorization. The authors define sex categorization as "the sociocognitive process by which we label another as male or female.
In most cases, men and women and boys and girls are similar in behavior, with little gender difference, but some gendered behavior is influenced by prenatal and early life androgen exposure. This includes, for example, gender normative play, self-identification with a gender, and tendency to engage in aggressive behavior. These levels may also influence sexuality, with non-heterosexual persons exhibiting sex atypical behavior in childhood. The biology of gender became the subject of an expanding number of studies over the course of the late 20th century.
One of the earliest areas of interest was what became known as "gender identity disorder" GID and which is now also described as gender dysphoria. Studies in this, and related areas, inform the following summary of the subject by John Money. He stated:. The term "gender role" appeared in print first in The term gender identity was used in a press release, November 21, , to announce the new clinic for transsexuals at The Johns Hopkins Hospital.
It was disseminated in the media worldwide, and soon entered the vernacular. The definitions of gender and gender identity vary on a doctrinal basis. In popularized and scientifically debased usage, sex is what you are biologically; gender is what you become socially; gender identity is your own sense or conviction of maleness or femaleness; and gender role is the cultural stereotype of what is masculine and feminine. Causality with respect to gender identity disorder is sub-divisible into genetic, prenatal hormonal, postnatal social, and post-pubertal hormonal determinants, but there is, as yet, no comprehensive and detailed theory of causality.
Gender coding in the brain is bipolar. In gender identity disorder, there is discordance between the natal sex of one's external genitalia and the brain coding of one's gender as masculine or feminine. Money refers to attempts to distinguish a difference between biological sex and social gender as "scientifically debased", because of our increased knowledge of a continuum of dimorphic features Money's word is "dipolar" that link biological and behavioral differences.
These extend from the exclusively biological "genetic" and "prenatal hormonal" differences between men and women, to "postnatal" features, some of which are social, but others have been shown to result from "post-pubertal hormonal" effects.
Although causation from the biological— genetic and hormonal —to the behavioral has been broadly demonstrated and accepted, Money is careful to also note that understanding of the causal chains from biology to behavior in sex and gender issues is very far from complete. For example, the existence of a " gay gene " has not been proven, but such a gene remains an acknowledged possibility.
There are studies concerning women who have a condition called congenital adrenal hyperplasia , which leads to the overproduction of the masculine sex hormone , androgen.
These women usually have ordinary female appearances though nearly all girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia CAH have corrective surgery performed on their genitals. However, despite taking hormone-balancing medication given to them at birth, these females are statistically more likely to be interested in activities traditionally linked to males than female activities. Psychology professor and CAH researcher Dr. Sheri Berenbaum attributes these differences to an exposure of higher levels of male sex hormones in utero.
The following gender taxonomy illustrates the kinds of diversity that have been studied and reported in medical literature. It is placed in roughly chronological order of biological and social development in the human life cycle.
The earlier stages are more purely biological and the latter are more dominantly social. Causation is known to operate from chromosome to gonads, and from gonads to hormones. It is also significant from brain structure to gender identity see Money quote above. Brain structure and processing biological that may explain erotic preference social , however, is an area of ongoing research. Terminology in some areas changes quite rapidly as knowledge grows.
Although sexual reproduction is defined at the cellular level, key features of sexual reproduction operate within the structures of the gamete cells themselves.
Notably, gametes carry very long molecules called DNA that the biological processes of reproduction can "read" like a book of instructions.
In fact, there are typically many of these "books", called chromosomes. Human gametes usually have 23 chromosomes, 22 of which are common to both sexes. The final chromosomes in the two human gametes are called sex chromosomes because of their role in sex determination.
Ova always have the same sex chromosome, labelled X. About half of spermatozoa also have this same X chromosome, the rest have a Y-chromosome. At fertilization the gametes fuse to form a cell, usually with 46 chromosomes, and either XX female or XY male, depending on whether the sperm carried an X or a Y chromosome.
Some of the other possibilities are listed above. Genes which are specific to the X or Y chromosome are called sex-linked genes. For example, the genes which create red and green retinal photoreceptors are located on the X chromosome, which men only have one of. Thus red-green color blindness is an X-linked recessive trait and is much more common in men. However, sex-limited genes on any chromosome can be expressed to indicate, for example, "if in a male body, do X; otherwise, do not.
The human XY system is not the only sex determination system. Several species of butterfly are known to have female parent sex determination. The platypus has a complex hybrid system, the male has ten sex chromosomes, half X and half Y. Richard J. Grey matter is used for information processing, while white matter consists of the connections between processing centers.
Other differences are measurable but less pronounced. However, differences that arise directly from gene activity have also been observed. A sexual dimorphism in levels of expression in brain tissue was observed by quantitative real-time PCR , with females presenting an up to 2-fold excess in the abundance of PCDH11X transcripts. We relate these findings to sexually dimorphic traits in the human brain. It has also been demonstrated that brain processing responds to the external environment.
Learning, both of ideas and behaviors, appears to be coded in brain processes. It also appears that in several simplified cases this coding operates differently, but in some ways equivalently, in the brains of men and women. Differences in female and male use of language are likely reflections both of biological preferences and aptitudes, and of learned patterns. Testosterone acts on many organs of the body, including the SDN-POA located in the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the brain and the Onuf's nucleus in the spinal cord , to create the masculinized patterns.
Gender studies is a field of interdisciplinary study and academic field devoted to gender, gender identity and gendered representation as central categories of analysis.
This field includes Women's studies concerning women , feminity , their gender roles and politics, and feminism , Men's studies concerning men , masculinity , their gender roles , and politics , and LGBT studies. These disciplines study gender and sexuality in the fields of literature and language, history , political science , sociology , anthropology , cinema and media studies , human development, law, and medicine.
Many of the more complicated human behaviors are influenced by both innate factors and by environmental ones, which include everything from genes, gene expression, and body chemistry, through diet and social pressures. A large area of research in behavioral psychology collates evidence in an effort to discover correlations between behavior and various possible antecedents such as genetics, gene regulation, access to food and vitamins, culture, gender, hormones, physical and social development, and physical and social environments.
A core research area within sociology is the way human behavior operates on itself , in other words, how the behavior of one group or individual influences the behavior of other groups or individuals.
Starting in the late 20th century, the feminist movement has contributed extensive study of gender and theories about it, notably within sociology but not restricted to it. Social theorists have sought to determine the specific nature of gender in relation to biological sex and sexuality, [ citation needed ] with the result being that culturally established gender and sex have become interchangeable identifications that signify the allocation of a specific 'biological' sex within a categorical gender.
Contemporary socialisation theory proposes the notion that when a child is first born it has a biological sex but no social gender. Some believe society is constructed in a way that splits gender into a dichotomy via social organisations that constantly invent and reproduce cultural images of gender. Joan Acker believes gendering occurs in at least five different interacting social processes: .
Looking at gender through a Foucauldian lens, gender is transfigured into a vehicle for the social division of power. Gender difference is merely a construct of society used to enforce the distinctions made between what is assumed to be female and male, and allow for the domination of masculinity over femininity through the attribution of specific gender-related characteristics.
Gender conventions play a large role in attributing masculine and feminine characteristics to a fundamental biological sex. These traits provide the foundations for the creation of hegemonic gender difference. It follows then, that gender can be assumed as the acquisition and internalisation of social norms. Individuals are therefore socialized through their receipt of society's expectations of 'acceptable' gender attributes that are flaunted within institutions such as the family, the state and the media.
Such a notion of 'gender' then becomes naturalized into a person's sense of self or identity, effectively imposing a gendered social category upon a sexed body. The conception that people are gendered rather than sexed also coincides with Judith Butler's theories of gender performativity. Butler argues that gender is not an expression of what one is, but rather something that one does.
Contemporary sociological reference to male and female gender roles typically uses masculinities and femininities in the plural rather than singular, suggesting diversity both within cultures as well as across them. The difference between the sociological and popular definitions of gender involve a different dichotomy and focus. There is then, in relation to definition of and approaches to "gender", a tension between historic feminist sociology and contemporary homosexual sociology.
A person's sex as male or female has legal significance—sex is indicated on government documents, and laws provide differently for men and women. Many pension systems have different retirement ages for men or women. Marriage is usually only available to opposite-sex couples; in some countries and jurisdictions there are same-sex marriage laws.
The question then arises as to what legally determines whether someone is female or male. In most cases this can appear obvious, but the matter is complicated for intersex or transgender people. Different jurisdictions have adopted different answers to this question. Almost all countries permit changes of legal gender status in cases of intersexualism, when the gender assignment made at birth is determined upon further investigation to be biologically inaccurate—technically, however, this is not a change of status per se.
Rather, it is recognition of a status deemed to exist but unknown from birth. Increasingly, jurisdictions also provide a procedure for changes of legal gender for transgender people. Gender assignment , when there are indications that genital sex might not be decisive in a particular case, is normally not defined by a single definition, but by a combination of conditions, including chromosomes and gonads. Thus, for example, in many jurisdictions a person with XY chromosomes but female gonads could be recognized as female at birth.
The ability to change legal gender for transgender people in particular has given rise to the phenomena in some jurisdictions of the same person having different genders for the purposes of different areas of the law. For example, in Australia prior to the Re Kevin decisions, transsexual people could be recognized as having the genders they identified with under many areas of the law, including social security law, but not for the law of marriage.
Thus, for a period, it was possible for the same person to have two different genders under Australian law. It is also possible in federal systems for the same person to have one gender under state law and a different gender under federal law.
For intersex people, who according to the UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights , "do not fit typical binary notions of male or female bodies",  access to any form of identification document with a gender marker may be an issue. Some countries now legally recognize non-binary or third genders, including Canada , Germany , Australia , India and Pakistan. In the United States , Oregon was the first state to legally recognize non-binary gender in ,  and was followed by California and the District of Columbia.
Natural languages often make gender distinctions. These may be of various kinds, more or less loosely associated by analogy with various actual or perceived differences between men and women. Some grammatical gender systems go beyond, or ignore, the masculine-feminine distinction.
Historically, science has been portrayed as a masculine pursuit in which women have faced significant barriers to participate. This topic includes internal and external religious issues such as gender of God and deities creation myths about human gender, roles and rights for instance, leadership roles especially ordination of women , sex segregation , gender equality , marriage, abortion, homosexuality.
They believe that the difference in religiosity between genders is due to biological differences, for instance usually people seeking security in life are more religious, and as men are considered to be greater risk takers than women, they are less religious.
Although religious fanaticism is more often seen in men than women. In Taoism , yin and yang are considered feminine and masculine, respectively. The Taijitu and concept of the Zhou period reach into family and gender relations. Yin is female and yang is male. They fit together as two parts of a whole. The male principle was equated with the sun: active, bright, and shining; the female principle corresponds to the moon: passive, shaded, and reflective.
Male toughness was balanced by female gentleness, male action and initiative by female endurance and need for completion, and male leadership by female supportiveness.
In Judaism , God is traditionally described in the masculine, but in the mystical tradition of the Kabbalah , the Shekhinah represents the feminine aspect of God's essence. However, Judaism traditionally holds that God is completely non-corporeal, and thus neither male nor female.
Conceptions of the gender of God notwithstanding, traditional Judaism places a strong emphasis on individuals following Judaism's traditional gender roles, though many modern denominations of Judaism strive for greater egalitarianism. As well, traditional Jewish culture dictates that there are six genders. In Christianity , God is traditionally described in masculine terms and the Church has historically been described in feminine terms. On the other hand, Christian theology in many churches distinguishes between the masculine images used of God Father, King, God the Son and the reality they signify, which transcends gender, embodies all the virtues of both men and women perfectly, which may be seen through the doctrine of Imago Dei.
John among other verses. Hence, the Father , the Son and the Holy Spirit i. Trinity are all mentioned with the masculine pronoun; though the exact meaning of the masculinity of the Christian triune God is contended. Here Shiva manifests himself so that the left half is Female and the right half is Male.
The left represents Shakti energy, power in the form of Goddess Parvati otherwise his consort and the right half Shiva. Whereas Parvati is the cause of arousal of Kama desires , Shiva is the killer. Shiva is pervaded by the power of Parvati and Parvati is pervaded by the power of Shiva. While the stone images may seem to represent a half-male and half-female God, the true symbolic representation is of a being the whole of which is Shiva and the whole of which is Shakti at the same time.
It is a 3-D representation of only shakti from one angle and only Shiva from the other. Shiva and Shakti are hence the same being representing a collective of Jnana knowledge and Kriya activity. Adi Shankaracharya, the founder of non-dualistic philosophy Advaita—"not two" in Hindu thought says in his "Saundaryalahari"— Shivah Shaktayaa yukto yadi bhavati shaktah prabhavitum na che devum devona khalu kushalah spanditam api " i.
In the absence of Shakti, He is not even able to stir. In fact, the term "Shiva" originated from "Shva," which implies a dead body. It is only through his inherent shakti that Shiva realizes his true nature.
This mythology projects the inherent view in ancient Hinduism, that each human carries within himself both female and male components, which are forces rather than sexes, and it is the harmony between the creative and the annihilative, the strong and the soft, the proactive and the passive, that makes a true person.
Such thought, leave alone entail gender equality, in fact obliterates any material distinction between the male and female altogether. This may explain why in ancient India we find evidence of homosexuality, bisexuality, androgyny, multiple sex partners and open representation of sexual pleasures in artworks like the Khajuraho temples, being accepted within prevalent social frameworks.
Gender inequality is most common in women dealing with poverty. Many women must shoulder all the responsibility of the household because they must take care of the family. Oftentimes this may include tasks such as tilling land, grinding grain, carrying water and cooking. Pearce coined the term feminization of poverty to describe the problem of women having higher rates of poverty.
Gender and Development GAD is a holistic approach to give aid to countries where gender inequality has a great effect of not improving the social and economic development. It is a program focused on the gender development of women to empower them and decrease the level of inequality between men and women. According to general strain theory , studies suggest that gender differences between individuals can lead to externalized anger that may result in violent outbursts. On the other end of the spectrum, men are less concerned with damaging relationships and more focused on using anger as a means of affirming their masculinity.
Results of Ingram et al. On the other hand: "boys were no more likely than girls to describe feelings of anger ensuing from a conflict". Cause of this fact remains unclear although is discussed in Trnka's study Females also recognized fear generally better than males.
Gender, and particularly the role of women is widely recognized as vitally important to international development issues.
In modern times, the study of gender and development has become a broad field that involves politicians, economists, and human rights activists. Gender and Development, unlike previous theories concerning women in development, includes a broader view of the effects of development on gender including economic, political, and social issues. The theory takes a holistic approach to development and its effects on women and recognizes the negative effects gender blind development policies have had on women.
Prior to , it was believed that development affected men and women in the same way and no gendered perspective existed for development studies. However, the s saw a transformation in development theory that sought to incorporate women into existing development paradigms. Boserup argued that women were marginalized in the modernization process and practices of growth, development, and development policy threatened to actually make women worse off.
Boserup's work translated into the beginning of a larger discourse termed Women in Development WID coined by the Women's Committee of the Washington DC Chapter of the Society for International Development , a network of female development professionals.
The primary goal of WID was to include women into existing development initiatives, since it was argued that women were marginalized and excluded from the benefits of development. In so doing, the WID approach pointed out that the major problem to women's unequal representation and participation were male biased and patriarchal development policies.
In short, the WID approach blamed patriarchy, which did not consider women's productive and reproductive work. In fact, women were tied to domestic work hence were almost invisible in development programs. The WID approach, however, began to gain criticism as ignoring how women's economic marginalization was linked to the development model itself. Some feminists [ who? Critics [ who? Drawing from insights developed in psychology, sociology, and gender studies, GAD theorists shifted from understanding women's problems as based on their sex i.
At their most fundamental, GAD perspectives link the social relations of production with the social relations of reproduction — exploring why and how women and men are assigned to different roles and responsibilities in society, how these dynamics are reflected in social, economic, and political theories and institutions, and how these relationships affect development policy effectiveness.
According to proponents of GAD, women are cast not as passive recipients of development aid, but rather as active agents of change whose empowerment should be a central goal of development policy. In contemporary times, most literature and institutions that are concerned with women's role in development incorporate a GAD perspective, with the United Nations taking the lead of mainstreaming the GAD approach through its system and development policies.
Researchers at the Overseas Development Institute have highlighted that policy dialogue on the Millennium Development Goals needs to recognize that the gender dynamics of power, poverty, vulnerability and care link all the goals.
The United Nations Millennium Declaration signed at the United Nations Millennium Summit in including eight goals that were to be reached by , and although it would be a difficult task to reach them, all of them could be monitored. The eight goals are:. The MDGs have three goals specifically focused on women: Goal 3, 4 and 5 but women's issues also cut across all of the goals.
These goals overall comprise all aspects of women's lives including economic, health, and political participation. Gender equality is also strongly linked to education. The Dakar Framework for Action set out ambitious goals: to eliminate gender disparities in primary and secondary education by , and to achieve gender equality in education by The focus was on ensuring girls' full and equal access to and achievement in good quality basic education. The gender objective of the Dakar Framework for Action is somewhat different from the MDG Goal 3 Target 1 : "Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education, preferably by , and in all levels of education no later than ".
MDG Goal 3 does not comprise a reference to learner achievement and good quality basic education, but goes beyond the school level. Studies demonstrate the positive impact of girls' education on child and maternal health, fertility rates, poverty reduction and economic growth.
Educated mothers are more likely to send their children to school. Some organizations working in developing countries and in the development field have incorporated advocacy and empowerment for women into their work. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations FAO adopted a year strategic framework in November that includes the strategic objective of gender equity in access to resources, goods, services and decision-making in rural areas, and mainstreams gender equity in all FAO's programs for agriculture and rural development.
The Gender-related Development Index GDI , developed by the United Nations, aims to show the inequalities between men and women in the following areas: long and healthy life, knowledge, and a decent standard of living. Gender is a topic of increasing concern within climate change policy and science.
Furthermore, the intersection of climate change and gender raises questions regarding the complex and intersecting power relations arising from it.
These differences, however, are mostly not due to biological or physical differences, but are formed by the social, institutional and legal context. Subsequently, vulnerability is less an intrinsic feature of women and girls but rather a product of their marginalization.
This is reflected in the fact that discourses of and negotiations over climate change are mostly dominated by men. Gender roles and stereotypes have slowly started to change in society within the past few decades. These changes occur mostly in communication, but more specifically during social interactions. Over the past few years, the use of social media globally has started to rise. Recent studies suggest that men and women value and use technology differently. They further showed that women's posts enjoyed higher popularity than men's post s.
Social media is more than just the communication of words. With social media increasing in popularity, pictures have come to play a large role in how many people communicate. According to recent research, gender plays a strong role in structuring our social lives, especially since society assigns and creates "male" and "female" categories. Every individual also has the right to express their opinion, even though some might disagree, but it still gives each gender an equal amount of power to be heard.
Young adults in the U. Teens are avid internet and social media users in the United States. Research has found that almost all U. According to a study conducted by the Kaiser Family Foundation, to year-olds spend on average over one and a half hours a day using a computer and 27 minutes per day visiting social network sites, i.
Teen girls and boys differ in what they post in their online profiles. Studies have shown that female users tend to post more "cute" pictures, while male participants were more likely to post pictures of themselves in activities. Women in the U. The study also found that males would post more alcohol and sexual references. Boys share more personal information, such as their hometown and phone number, while girls are more conservative about the personal information they allow to go public on these social networking sites.
Boys, meanwhile, are more likely to orient towards technology, sports, and humor in the information they post to their profile. Social media goes beyond the role of helping individuals express themselves, as it has grown to help individuals create relationships, particularly romantic relationships.
A large number of social media users have found it easier to create relationships in a less direct approach, compared to a traditional approach of awkwardly asking for someone's number. Social media plays a big role when it comes to communication between genders.
Therefore it's important to understand how gender stereotypes develop during online interactions. Research in the s suggested that different genders display certain traits, such as being active, attractive, dependent, dominant, independent, sentimental, sexy, and submissive, in online interaction. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the grammatical concept, see Grammatical gender. For other uses, see Gender disambiguation.
Characteristics distinguishing between masculinity and femininity. Main articles: Gender identity and Gender role. Gender identities. Health care and medicine. Rights issues. Society and culture. Theory and concepts. By country. See also. See also: Sex assignment. Main articles: Genderqueer and Third gender. Feminism analytical epistemology ethics existentialism metaphysics Gender equality Gender performativity Social construction of gender Care ethics Intersectionality Standpoint theory.
See also: Sex and gender distinction. See also: Sexual differentiation and Sexual differentiation in humans. See also: Sexual differentiation , Sexual dimorphism , and Sex differences in humans. Main article: Neuroscience of sex differences. Angular gyrus. Supramarginal gyrus.
Broca's area. Wernicke's area. Primary auditory cortex. Main article: Gender studies. See also: Sex and psychology. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Main article: Legal recognition of intersex people. Main article: Legal recognition of non-binary gender.
See also: Women in science. Further information: Gender and religion. Main article: Feminization of poverty. Main article: Climate change and gender. Richard November Archives of Sexual Behavior. Archived from the original PDF on 15 June World Health Organization.
Archived from the original on 30 January Retrieved 26 November Such societies divide their population based on biological sex assigned to individuals at birth to begin the process of gender socialization. Social Science Dictionary.
Archived from the original on 2 February Retrieved 20 March The Sociology of gender" PDF. Gender Roles: A Sociological Perspective. Archived from the original PDF on 5 April Archived from the original PDF on 6 April Retrieved 3 August Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 26 February Feminist Studies.
Your Dictionary. An Etymological Dictionary of the English Language. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Oxford University Press. For as it turns out, what we call gender is a fairly recent concept. It's not that people in Ancient Greece and Rome didn't talk and think and argue about the categories of male and female, masculine and feminine and the nature and extent of sexual difference.
They did in [ways] both similar to and very different from our own. The problem is that they didn't have the concept of gender that has grown so influential in the humanities and the social sciences over the past four decades.
The concept of gender, as I've just said, is recent. So what is it and where does it come from? Simone de Beauvoir famously wrote: 'one is not born, but rather becomes, woman' But the term 'gender', which had long been associated with grammar, only started to move towards what she was describing in the later s and s.
Arizona Law Review. Modern Library NY, ]. Translated by Roberts, William Rhys. Mineola, NY: Dover. A fourth rule is to observe Protagoras' classification of nouns into male, female and inanimate. Johns Hopkins Hosp. By the term, gender role, we mean all those things that a person says or does to disclose himself or herself as having the status of boy or man, girl or woman, respectively.
It includes, but is not restricted to sexuality in the sense of eroticism. Gender role is appraised in relation to the following: general mannerisms, deportment and demeanor, play preferences and recreational interests; spontaneous topics of talk in unprompted conversation and casual comment; content of dreams, daydreams, and fantasies; replies to oblique inquiries and projective tests; evidence of erotic practices and, finally, the person's own replies to direct inquiry.