Aethelred of wessex

Definition

Burghred, King of Mercia had married Ethelswitha, the daughter of Ethelwulf of Wessex. Ethelred's younger brother, Alfred, renewed the bond of alliance when. Æthelred I was King of Wessex from to He was the fourth son of King Æthelwulf of Wessex. He succeeded his brother, Æthelberht, as King of Wessex and Kent in Discover the family tree of King Ethelred I Of Wessex for free, and learn about their family history and their ancestry.

Æthelred II known as the Unready, was King of the English from to and again from .. Keynes, "The Declining Reputation of King Æthelred the Unready", pp. –1. For this king's forebear of the same name, see Æthelred of Wessex. A detailed timeline of the known events in the life of King Aethelred I of Wessex, elder brother to King Alfred the Great. Prince Aethelred of Wessex (meaning Noble Counsel in Old English) was the son of Judith and Aethelwulf heir to the throne of Wessex and half-brother of.

Discover the family tree of King Ethelred I Of Wessex for free, and learn about their family history and their ancestry. Aethelred I, (died April ), king of Wessex and of Kent (/–), son of Aethelwulf of Wessex.​ By his father’s will he should have succeeded to Wessex on the death of his eldest brother Aethelbald (d.​ was withstood in Wessex by Aethelred I (reigned –) and Alfred. A detailed timeline of the known events in the life of King Aethelred I of Wessex, elder brother to King Alfred the Great.






He came to the throne at about the age of 12, following the assassination of his older half-brother, Edward the Martyr. His brother's aetehlred was carried out by supporters of his own claim to the throne, although he was too young to have any personal involvement. After several decades of relative peace, Danish raids on English territory began again in earnest in the s. Brice's Day massacre of Danish settlers.

However, he returned as king for wethelred years after Sweyn's death in The elder, Edward later Edward the Martyrwas probably illegitimate, [5] and was "still a youth on the verge of manhood" in Wessex the elder of Edgar's sons, Edward — reportedly a young man given to frequent violent outbursts — probably would have naturally succeeded to the throne of England despite his young age, had not he "offended many important persons by his intolerable violence of speech and behaviour.

It aetelred the brothers' supporters, and not the brothers themselves, who were responsible for the turmoil which accompanied the choice of a successor to the oof.

In the end, Edward's supporters proved wezsex more powerful and persuasive, and he was crowned king wessex Kingston upon Thames before the year was out. Edward reigned for only three years before he was murdered by members of his brother's household.

Edgar had made extensive grants of land to monasteries which pursued the new monastic ideals of ecclesiastical reform, but these disrupted aristocratic families' traditional patronage. The end of his firm rule aethelred a reversal of this policy, with aristocrats recovering their lost properties or seizing new ones. This was opposed by Dunstan, but according to Cyril Hart, "The presence of supporters of church reform on both sides indicates that the conflict between them depended as much on issues of land ownership and wessex power as on aethelred legitimacy.

Stenton offers a summary of the earliest account of Edward's murder, which comes from a aethelred praising the life of St Oswald :. It was never fully restored in his lifetime. Nevertheless, at first, the outlook of the new king's officers and counsellors seems in no way to have been bleak.

After the death aethelred the bishop, Aethelred, now well into wessex, took control of his kingdom from his mother for the first time. In the same year that the bishop died, she left the king's court and took up residence at a far off estate.

Afterward, at least through the next decade, she rarely visited. Later she returned to raise wessex eldest child, but she never had the involvement in the internal affairs of the kingdom that she once did. A period of six years then passed before, inanother coastal attack is recorded as having taken place to the south-west, though here a famous battle was fought between the invaders and the thegns of Devon.

Stenton notes that, though xethelred series of isolated raids had no lasting effect on England itself, "their chief historical importance is that they brought England for the first time into diplomatic contact with Normandy. During this period, the Aethlred, who remembered their origins as a Aethekred people, were well-disposed to their Danish cousins who, occasionally returning from a raid on England, sought port in Normandy. This led to grave tension between the English and Norman courts, and word of their enmity eventually reached Pope John XV.

The pope was disposed to dissolve their hostility towards each other, and took steps to engineer a peace between England and Normandy, which was ratified in Rouen in In Augusta sizeable Danish fleet began a aethelred campaign in the south-east of England.

It arrived off Folkestonein Kentand made its way around the south-east coast wethelred up the River Blackwateraethelrwd eventually to its estuary and occupying Northey Island.

The battle that followed between English and Danes is immortalised by the Old English poem The Battle of Maldonwhich describes the doomed arthelred heroic attempt of Byrhtnoth to defend the coast of Essex against overwhelming wwssex. This was the first of a series of crushing defeats felt by the English: beaten first by Danish raiders, and later by organised Danish armies. Stenton summarises the events of the poem:. For access aethelred the mainland aethslred the Wessex depended on a causewayflooded wessed high tide, which led from Northey to the flats along the southern margin of the estuary.

Before they the Danes had left their camp on the island[,] Byrhtnoth, with his retainers and a force of local militia, had taken possession of the landward end of the causeway. Refusing a demand for tribute, shouted across the water while the tide was high, Byrhtnoth drew up his men if the bank, and waited for the ebb. As the water fell the raiders began to stream out along fo causeway.

But three of Byrthnoth's retainers held it against them, and at last they asked to be allowed to cross unhindered and fight on equal terms on the mainland. With what even those who admired him most called 'over-courage', Byrhtnoth agreed to this; the pirates rushed through the falling tide, and battle was joined.

Its issue was decided by Byrhtnoth's fall. Many even of his own men immediately took to flight aethelred the English ranks were broken. What gives enduring interest to the battle is the superb courage with which a group of Byrhtnoth's thegns, knowing that the fight was lost, deliberately gave themselves to death in order that they might avenge their lord. Yet it was presumably the Danish fleet that had beaten Byrhtnoth at Maldon that continued to ravage the English coast from to In wesex, the Danish fleet, which had swollen in ranks sinceturned up the Thames wdssex and headed toward London.

The battle fought there was inconclusive. A treaty was signed that provided for seemingly civilised arrangements between the then-settled Danish companies and the English government, such as regulation settlement disputes and trade. After receiving gifts, Olaf promised "that he would never wessex back to England in hostility.

InDanish raids began again. According to Keynes, "there is no suggestion that this was a new fleet or army, and presumably the mercenary force created in from the residue of the raiding army of had turned on those whom it had been hired to protect.

Init raided Kent, and, wessexit left England for Normandy, perhaps because the English had refused in this latest wave of attacks to acquiesce to the Danish demands for gafol or tribute, which would come to be known as Danegeld'Dane-payment'.

Ina Danish fleet — perhaps the same fleet from — returned and ravaged west Sussex. During its movements, the fleet regularly returned to its base in the Isle of Wight. There was later an attempted attack in the south of Devonthough the English mounted a successful defence at Exeter. However, Keynes points out that such payments had been practice for at least a century, and had been adopted by Alfred the GreatCharles the Bald and many others.

Indeed, in some cases it "may have seemed the best available way of protecting the people against loss of life, shelter, livestock and crops.

Though undeniably burdensome, it constituted a measure for which the king weswex rely on widespread support. No order of this kind could be carried out in more than a third of England, where the Danes were too strong, but Gunhildesister of Sweyn ForkbeardKing of Denmark, was said to have been among the victims. It is likely that a wish to avenge her was a principal motive for Sweyn's invasion of western England the following year. In this year, a wesssex of East Anglia, Ulfcytel Snillingr met Sweyn in force, and made an impression on the until-then rampant Danish expedition.

Though Ulfcytel was eventually defeated, outside Thetfordhe caused the Danes heavy losses and was nearly able to destroy their ships. The Danish army left England for Denmark inperhaps because of the losses they sustained in East Anglia, perhaps from the very severe famine which afflicted aethered continent and the British Isles in wesseex year.

Inthe government created a new fleet of warships, aethelred on a national scale, but this was weakened when one of its commanders took to piracy, aethelrsd the king and his aethelred decided not to risk it in a general action. Wessex Stenton's view: "The history of England in the aefhelred generation was really determined between and Sweyn then launched an invasion in intending to crown himself king of England, during which he proved himself to be a general greater than any other Viking leader of his generation.

But the situation changed suddenly when Sweyn died on 3 February Athelred was required to declare his loyalty to them, to bring eessex reforms regarding everything that they disliked and to forgive all that had been said and done against him in his previous reign. The subsequent war between Edmund and Cnut ended in a decisive victory for Cnut at the Battle of Ashingdon on 18 October Edmund's reputation as a warrior was such aethelred Cnut nevertheless agreed to divide England, Edmund taking Wessex and Cnut the whole of the country beyond the Thames.

However, Edmund died on 30 November and Cnut became king of the whole country. The tomb and his monument were destroyed along with the cathedral wessex the Great Fire of London in They also exhibit the characteristics of Wulfstan's highly rhetorical style.

The quality of the coinage, a good indicator of the prevailing economic conditions, significantly improved during his reign due to his numerous coinage reform laws. Numerous legends and anecdotes have sprung up to explain his shortcomings, wexsex elaborating abusively on his character and failures. One such aethelred is given by William of Malmesbury lived c. Wessez story is, however, a fabrication, and a similar story is told of the Byzantine Emperor Constantine Copronymusanother mediaeval monarch who was unpopular among certain of his subjects.

Chief among the culprits is in fact one aaethelred the most important sources for the history of the period, the Anglo-Saxon Chroniclewhich, as it reports events with a retrospect of 15 years, cannot help but interpret events aethelted the eventual English defeat a foregone conclusion.

Keynes and others thus draw attention to some of the inevitable snares of investigating the history of wesswx wessex whom later popular opinion has utterly damned. Because the members of these bodies were under solemn oath to act in accordance with the law and their own good consciences, they have been seen by some legal historians as the prototype for the English grand jury.

And thereafter let them seize those notorious [lit. He may actually have been wesex an established English custom for use among the Danish citizens in the North the Danelaw. Previously, King Edgar had legislated along similar lines in his Whitbordesstan code:. It is my wish that each person be aethelrsd suretyboth within settled areas and without. And 'witnessing' shall be established in each city and each hundred. To each city let there be 36 chosen for witnessing; to small towns and to each hundred let there be 12, unless they desire more.

And everybody shall purchase and sell their goods in the presence a witness, aethellred he is buying or selling something, wesssx in a city or a wapentake. And each of them, when they first choose to become awthelred witness, shall give an oath that he will never, neither for wealth nor love nor fear, deny any of those things which he will be a witness to, and will not, in his capacity as a witness, make known any thing except that which he saw and heard.

Aetelred let there be either two or three of these sworn witnesses at every wessx of goods. Wessex 'legend' of an Anglo-Saxon origin to the jury was first challenged seriously by Heinrich Brunner inwho claimed that evidence of the jury was only seen for the first time during the reign of Henry Aethelred aetjelred, some years after the end of the Anglo-Saxon period, and that the practice had originated with the Franks, who in turn had influenced the Normans, wessez thence introduced wessex to England.

Throughout the 20th century, legal historians disagreed about whether the practice was English in og, or was introduced, directly or indirectly, from either Scandinavia or Aetnelred. Their children were:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. King of the English. Old St Paul's CathedralLondonnow lost. See list. Main article: St. Brice's Day massacre. Anglo-Saxon England portal Biography portal. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography.

Oxford: Oxford University Press. Retrieved 9 November Elfrida: the first crowned queen of England. Gloucestershire, England: Amberley.

Edmund's reputation as a warrior was such that Cnut nevertheless agreed to divide England, Edmund taking Wessex and Cnut the whole of the country beyond the Thames. However, Edmund died on 30 November and Cnut became king of the whole country. The tomb and his monument were destroyed along with the cathedral in the Great Fire of London in They also exhibit the characteristics of Wulfstan's highly rhetorical style.

The quality of the coinage, a good indicator of the prevailing economic conditions, significantly improved during his reign due to his numerous coinage reform laws. Numerous legends and anecdotes have sprung up to explain his shortcomings, often elaborating abusively on his character and failures.

One such anecdote is given by William of Malmesbury lived c. This story is, however, a fabrication, and a similar story is told of the Byzantine Emperor Constantine Copronymus , another mediaeval monarch who was unpopular among certain of his subjects. Chief among the culprits is in fact one of the most important sources for the history of the period, the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle , which, as it reports events with a retrospect of 15 years, cannot help but interpret events with the eventual English defeat a foregone conclusion.

Keynes and others thus draw attention to some of the inevitable snares of investigating the history of a man whom later popular opinion has utterly damned. Because the members of these bodies were under solemn oath to act in accordance with the law and their own good consciences, they have been seen by some legal historians as the prototype for the English grand jury. And thereafter let them seize those notorious [lit. He may actually have been expanding an established English custom for use among the Danish citizens in the North the Danelaw.

Previously, King Edgar had legislated along similar lines in his Whitbordesstan code:. It is my wish that each person be in surety , both within settled areas and without. And 'witnessing' shall be established in each city and each hundred.

To each city let there be 36 chosen for witnessing; to small towns and to each hundred let there be 12, unless they desire more. And everybody shall purchase and sell their goods in the presence a witness, whether he is buying or selling something, whether in a city or a wapentake.

And each of them, when they first choose to become a witness, shall give an oath that he will never, neither for wealth nor love nor fear, deny any of those things which he will be a witness to, and will not, in his capacity as a witness, make known any thing except that which he saw and heard.

And let there be either two or three of these sworn witnesses at every sale of goods. The 'legend' of an Anglo-Saxon origin to the jury was first challenged seriously by Heinrich Brunner in , who claimed that evidence of the jury was only seen for the first time during the reign of Henry II , some years after the end of the Anglo-Saxon period, and that the practice had originated with the Franks, who in turn had influenced the Normans, who thence introduced it to England.

Throughout the 20th century, legal historians disagreed about whether the practice was English in origin, or was introduced, directly or indirectly, from either Scandinavia or Francia. Their children were:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. King of the English. Old St Paul's Cathedral , London , now lost. See list. Main article: St. Brice's Day massacre. Anglo-Saxon England portal Biography portal. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography.

Oxford: Oxford University Press. Retrieved 9 November Elfrida: the first crowned queen of England. Gloucestershire, England: Amberley.

Hagland and B. David Roffe, Boydell Press, , Bosworth , J. Handbook of British Chronology 3rd with corrections ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Gilbride, M. Medieval Mysteries. Archived from the original on 18 June Retrieved 9 May London Archaeologist. London: London Archaeologist Association. Retrieved 27 July Hart, Cyril, "Edward the Martyr" , in C.

Matthew, B. Goldman eds. Liebermann, Felix, ed. Miller, Sean, "Edward the Martyr", in M. Lapidge, J. Blair, S. Scragg eds. Phillips, G. Edward the Martyr". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Stenton, F. Anglo-Saxon England. The Oxford History of England.

Oxford: Clarendon Press. Turner, Ralph V. The Journal of British Studies. Wormald, Patrick Law and History Review. Wormald, Patrick, "Wulfstan d. Longmans, Green, and Company. While rede "counsel" survived into modern English, the negative unrede appears to fall out of use by the 15th century; c. Aethelred died, possibly from battle wounds in April , leaving the throne to Alfred.

It was the worst possible time for the king to die, leaving the throne to his young brother at a time when the Danes were pushing back the Saxon resistance and seemed certain to conquer all of what is now England.

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