Heterosexual Men: A Pilot Study on the Rate of Androphilia preference is androphilia (sexual–erotic attraction to males), which can be explored through. Androphilia and gynephilia are terms used in behavioral science to describe sexual orientation, as an alternative to a gender binary homosexual and heterosexual conceptualization. Androphilia describes sexual attraction to men or masculinity;. Nicolas Chinardet doesn't like the words most people use to describe his sexuality. “I think 'homosexual' is a bit clinical, and lots of people use.
It's a sexual identity that has almost nothing to do with sexuality. Androphilia is a rejection of the overloaded gay identity and a return to a discussion of. One 'androphile' Henning Diesel said he doesn't like “gay music like “Our sexual freedoms come as a result of noteworthy activists, many of. Androphilia and gynephilia are terms used in behavioral science to describe sexual orientation, as an alternative to a gender binary homosexual and heterosexual conceptualization. Androphilia describes sexual attraction to men or masculinity;.
One 'androphile' Henning Diesel said he doesn't like “gay music like “Our sexual freedoms come as a result of noteworthy activists, many of. The term androphilia (or androsexuality) was originally coined to describe age aspect of erotic orientation of male homosexuals. The terms androphilia and. Following Hirschfeld, androphilia and gynephilia are sometimes used in taxonomies which specify sexual interests.
Enter your mobile number or email address below and we'll send you a link to download the free Kindle App. Then you can start reading Kindle books on your smartphone, tablet, or computer - no Kindle device required. To get the free app, enter your mobile phone number. Gay is a subculture, a slur, a set of gestures, a slang, a look, a posture, a parade, a rainbow flag, a film genre, a taste in music, a hairstyle, a marketing demographic, a bumper sticker, a political agenda and philosophical viewpoint.
Gay is a pre-packaged, superficial persona--a sexuality. It's a sexual identity that has almost nothing to do with sexuality. Homosexual men have been paradoxically cast as the enemies of masculinity--slaves to the feminist pipe dream of a "gender-neutral" read: anti-male, pro-female sexuality.
It is a androphilia to leave the gay world completely behind and to rejoin the world of men, unapologetically, as androphiles, but more importantly, as men. Would you like to tell us about a lower price? If you sexuality a seller for this product, would you like to suggest updates through seller support?
Finally back in print. Read more Read less. Androphilia Cloud Reader Read instantly sexuality your browser. Customers who viewed this item also viewed. Page 1 of 1 Start over Page 1 androphilia 1. The Way of Men. Jack Donovan. A More Complete Beast. Becoming a Barbarian.
A Sky Without Eagles. What other items do customers buy after viewing this item? Review "Like a blowtorch to the forehead. Read more. Tell the Publisher! I'd like to read this book on Kindle Don't have sexuality Kindle? Customer reviews. Top Reviews Most recent Top Reviews. There was a problem filtering reviews right now.
Please try again later. Format: Paperback Verified Purchase. Although homosexual, the author attacks the "gay movement" frontally. He admits, that homosexuality is a part of his personality - with sexuality pronounciaton of "part", instead the "gay movement" makes an ideology of it, including feminism, victimism and political leftism. But why should a man who loves men, so the author, precisely admit sexuality anti-male ideology? The author rejects the term "gay" for himself and replaces it by "androphile", thus emphazising his male qualities.
One of the best books I've ever read - truly enlightening! Format: Kindle Edition Verified Purchase. This is a great sexuality for any man that doesn't identify with the "gay" culture.
I like men. However, I see them as more than sexually viable options. If I'm to have my boundaries respected - I'm to androphilia the boundaries of my straight brethren. I just don't see the point in the current programming androphilia men in the gay sexuality to sell themselves short and identify solely on their sexuality. I'm so much more than what I choose to sleep with. I'm a well-rounded man. Not a preference. Enjoyed the read. Androphilia is a book written by a homosexual for homosexuals who feel isolated from the gay world.
I had been wanting to read it for years and finally androphilia time to pick it up. While not agreeing with all of Donovan's statements, I found a lot to be gained from this book. It made me feel that I wasn't crazy, and that I can be a man without subscribing to the world of drag shows and diva-fronted pop music just because I'm a homosexual.
There is a pretty controversial essay at the end of the book where he rejects the construct of gay marriage, stating that it was centered around femininity. This didn't resonate with me, as I embrace romance, and don't find that it makes you less masculine for doing so. Either way, I enjoyed educating myself on a fresh perspective of this topic. The only other nitpick I had was that it felt repetitive at times, like Donovan was repeating himself. This may have been done intentionally to really hammer in the points of his manifesto.
All this being said, I do feel it is a book most homosexual men should read, as it is extremely thought-provoking. I know I will certainly be keeping Donovan's points in my mind for awhile to come as I embark on my romantic and non-romantic androphilia with men. Interesting read, not sure if it was written before or after "the way of men" but i enjoyed that sexuality much better. I'm not a homosexual so i don't think this book was written for me. That said Jack has a writing style i enjoy.
I wish I had more time to read the rest of his books. Jack Donovan is the voice that can truly liberate the gay communities false identification with a feminist critique of what being a male attracted to males means and presents the way out of the ghetto and to self acceptance as a real and complete man gaining the comradery and friendship sexuality the greater heterosexual male society.
Great book with thoughtful insights and brutal honesty. Do I think what he says is important? Very much so. As someone who was born and raised in Russia, experienced intolerance and discrimination there and then moved to America to "live freely" but never felt belonging to mainstream gay culture, I completely and androphilia rediscovered myself once again after reading this book.
Many of these ideas were familiar to me since I was a teenager but then I decided to forget androphilia because I tried to adjust to the life of a modern androphilia.
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Trans women, it does not matter if they are of anatomies that can be loosely described as testicular, ovarian Afghan girls in families without male children are often raised as boys due to the severe restrictions put upon women in such society , ambiguous intersex or transitioned, are women. Trans men, it does not matter if they are of anatomies that can be loosely described as ovarian, testicular people victims of accidents where they lose their testicular genitalia were often raised as girls , ambiguous intersex or transitioned, are men.
Intersex women, raised as girls, boys or neither, are women. Intersex men, raised as boys, girls or neither, are men. What makes a gender identity valid is self-identification, and nothing else. Homosexuality includes men who are attracted to men, women who are attracted to women. Heterosexuality includes women who are attracted to men, men who are attracted to women. Homophilia or homosexuality is when one is attracted to people that are "the same" as oneself, almost always referring to people having the same gender as oneself.
Heterophilia or heterosexuality is when one is attracted to people that are "different" from oneself, almost always referring to a different gender. Jump to: navigation , search. Categories : Sexuality Gender Transgender. Namespaces Page Talk. Views Read Edit Fossil record. Support Donate. Community Saloon bar To do list What is going on?
Social media Twitter Facebook Discord Reddit. This page was last modified on 12 March , at Unless explicitly noted otherwise, all content licensed as indicated by RationalWiki:Copyrights. We're so glad you came Sexuality. Reach around the subject. Qualitative studies indicate that muxes exhibit gender atypical behavior from an early age [ 34 — 36 ]. These observations are supported by recent quantitative research demonstrating that muxes recall elevated indicators of childhood separation anxiety [ 37 ], a trait most often displayed by females [ 38 , 39 ].
Istmo Zapotec recognize two types of muxes : muxe gunaa and muxe nguiiu i. Muxe nguiiu are cisgender androphilic males who present publically in a relatively masculine manner, similar to Euro-American gay men. Within the Istmo region of Oaxaca, both the transgender form of male androphilia muxe gunaa and the cisgender form muxe nguiiu occur at appreciable rates.
Despite differences in gender expression, both types of muxes are relatively feminine when compared to their gynephilic male counterparts, as is generally the case for androphilic males worldwide e. Our study tested this folk belief by examining whether male androphilia is familial among the Istmo Zapotec.
Given that substantial numbers of both transgender and cisgender muxes exist among the Istmo Zapotec, a unique within -culture comparison can be made on the proportion of androphilic male relatives in the families of both cisgender muxe nguiiu and transgender muxe gunaa androphilic males. Thus, the first aim of the present study was to compare the familial patterning and prevalence of androphilic male relatives between muxe gunaa and muxe nguiiu. Next, the prevalence of muxe relatives i.
In addition, we conducted within-group comparisons to determine whether there were any differences in the prevalence of androphilic male relatives between paternal and maternal kin categories i. Finally, a population prevalence rate of male androphilia among the Istmo Zapotec was calculated. Based on these aims, and on the literature mentioned above, our hypotheses and predictions were as follows:.
Hypothesis 1. Both transgender and cisgender androphilic males have similar familial patterning of male androphilia.
Prediction 1. Istmo Zapotec muxe gunaa transgender and muxe nguiiu cisgender will not differ significantly with respect to the proportion of muxe relatives within their families.
Hypothesis 2. Androphilic males have more androphilic male relatives than gynephilic males. Prediction 2. Istmo Zapotec muxes both cisgender and transgender combined will have significantly more muxe relatives than Istmo Zapotec gynephilic males. Hypothesis 3. Androphilic males in non-Euro-American cultures have similar familial patterning of male androphilia in both maternal and paternal lines.
Prediction 3. Istmo Zapotec muxes will not differ significantly with respect to the prevalence of muxe relatives between the paternal and maternal kin categories i. Hypothesis 4. Prediction 4.
Canadian, USA and French foreigner nationals are permitted to conduct research in Mexico for a period of days if they have a valid passport [ 45 ]. All the authors held valid passports from these countries and our field trips did not exceed this period of time. The authors also confirmed with the Mexican Embassy in Ottawa, Canada, and the Mexican Consulate in Calgary, Canada, that a research permit from Mexican authorities was not required to conduct this study.
Furthermore, we visited the local police station and the police were made aware of our research activities. As such, this research was conducted in compliance with local research regulations in Mexico. Consistent with previous family studies conducted in Samoa [ 5 , 26 ], all participants were recruited using a network sampling procedure which consisted of contacting randomly chosen initial participants, who gave referrals for additional participants, who in turn provided further referrals, and so on.
Three separate field trips took place between November-December, , February-March , and November-December Participants were required to provide informed written consent prior to participating in the study. Participants were asked to report their gender as either men or muxe.
If they identified as muxes , they were then asked to identify as either muxe gunaa or muxe nguiiu. A total of gynephilic men and muxes muxe gunaa and 59 muxe nguiiu were interviewed for this study. Participants could answer the questionnaires alone, but it was not unusual for them to also receive assistance from relatives if they were nearby.
None of the participants were brothers or first cousins. Participants were asked to report information regarding their age in years. Participants were also asked to report their average weekly income with a scale that ranged from 1 0— Mexican Pesos to 9 more than Mexican Pesos. As such, none of the biographic variables were used as covariates when conducting inferential statistics. Participants were interviewed using questionnaires, which were available in Spanish after being translated and back-translated by two fluent Spanish-English speakers.
When participants were not fully fluent in Spanish, a Zapotec-speaking research assistant was also present for interviews. Questions were read out loud by research assistants in Spanish or Zapotec as necessary. Participants reported the total number of biological brothers they had, as well as all biological male relatives i. An additional category was created combining maternal uncles and male cousins via aunts in order to test for potential X-linkage factors of male androphilia.
These kin categories are the only males with whom probands might share common X-linked genes. Brothers were not included in this category because they share both X-linked genes and the same Y chromosome as probands, thus confounding comparisons between the paternal and maternal lines. The participants identified how many of those relatives were muxes.
This information was used to calculate the proportion of muxes relatives within each kin category for each participant. These proportions were then averaged for each kin category within each group so as to have a mean proportion of muxe relative to conduct group comparisons. Some of the participants had relatives who moved outside of the Istmo to different states within Mexico or to different countries that are known to have lower fertility rates e.
Since our primary aim in this study was to analyze the prevalence of male androphilia within the Istmo region of Oaxaca, only male relatives whose parents had spent their entire reproductive history within the Istmo were included in the analysis. Mann-Whitney U tests where employed when comparing the average proportion of muxe relatives between Istmo Zapotec muxe gunaa and muxe nguiiu in the paternal line, maternal line, and both lines combined Table 1.
Within group comparisons were conducted comparing the paternal and maternal relatives of muxe gunaa and muxe nguiiu using Wilcoxon signed-rank tests Table 2. Finally, additional within group comparisons were conducted using Friedman tests in order to compare the prevalence of maternal and paternal muxe relatives across different kin categories i.
Post hoc analyses for the Friedman tests were conducted using Wilcoxon signed-rank tests Table 3. Given the numerous statistical comparisons carried out, a more conservative critical alpha of 0. All effect size estimates are listed in order of comparing uncles to male cousins via uncles; uncles to male cousins via aunts; male cousins via uncles to male cousins via aunts.
However, the preceding omnibus test was not. Consistent with Prediction 1, the two types of muxes did not significantly differ with respect to the proportion of muxe relatives overall i. Additionally, muxe gunaa and muxe nguiiu did not differ significantly with respect to the prevalence of muxe relatives in either their combined paternal or combined maternal lines.
Within the maternal line, muxe gunaa were found to have significantly more muxe cousins via aunts compared to muxe nguiiu. Lastly, no significant difference was observed when comparing the proportion of muxe brothers between muxe gunaa and muxe nguiiu probands. For both types of muxes , no significant differences were observed within groups for the prevalence of androphilic male relatives in paternal and maternal kin categories i.
When comparing the prevalence of muxe relatives among uncles, cousins via uncles, and cousins via aunts Table 3 , no significant differences were found for muxe gunaa. Similarly, muxe nguiiu showed no significant differences in the proportion of muxe relatives in any of these kin categories. Given that proportions of muxe relatives among the families of muxe gunaa and muxe nguiiu were largely equivalent, the two muxe types were combined in order to compare them to gynephilic males.
Consistent with Prediction 2, muxe probands had significantly more muxe relatives overall i. Muxe probands also had a significantly higher proportion of androphilic male paternal relatives compared to gynephilic males, whereas maternal relatives did not differ significantly between the groups. Lastly, muxes reported having significantly more muxe brothers than gynephilic males.
Consistent with Prediction 3, no significant differences were observed for the prevalence of androphilic male relatives in paternal and maternal kin categories i. The same was also true for families of gynephilic males.
Finally, when comparing the prevalence of muxe relatives among uncles, male cousins via uncles, and male cousins via aunts Table 6 , both muxes and gynephilic men showed no significant differences. The data collected in the current study were used to calculate a population prevalence estimate of muxes i.
Consistent with previous studies [ 5 , 26 ], the population prevalence estimate was comprised of the overall proportion of muxe relatives i. Specifically, the upper bound of the population prevalence estimate was calculated using the proportion of muxe relatives among muxe probands, while the lower bound was calculated using the proportion of muxe relatives among gynephilic male probands.
Given the binomial nature of these estimates i. For the muxe probands, a frequency of muxe relatives out of total male relatives 5. For the gynephilic male probands, a frequency of muxe relatives out of total male relatives 4. Similar to the SD formula, p is the proportion of male relatives who are muxes and n is the total number of male relatives.
Given previous research suggesting that androphilic males have more androphilic male relatives than gynephilic males [ 5 , 26 , 27 ], and that the CI for the muxe probands was higher than the CI of gynephilic male probands, we used the upper bound of the CI of the muxe probands 6.
As such, we estimate that the true rate of androphilia among the Istmo Zapotec must falls between 3. In order to determine whether male androphilia clusters within families among the Istmo Zapotec, the current study compared the proportion of muxe relatives in the paternal and maternal lines of gynephilic males and muxe s. Comparisons between transgender muxe gunaa and cisgender muxe nguiiu muxes revealed that both reported analogous family patterning of male androphilia.
This held true when comparing the paternal and maternal lines separately, and when combined. There was, however, one significant difference observed between the two types of muxes. Muxe gunaa reported having more androphilic male cousins via maternal aunts than did muxe nguiiu Table 1. Given that a substantial body of research demonstrates that transgender and cisgender male androphiles share numerous biodemographic correlates [ 2 ], there is no a priori reason to predict why this pattern would emerge within this specific kin category alone.
As such it is likely to be the result of type I error. These subtle differences did not overshadow the larger pattern, which showed that muxe gunaa and muxe nguiiu did not differ with respect to the clustering of male androphilia within their families.
After establishing that the two types of muxes had comparable proportions of androphilic male relatives, groups were combined in order to compare them to gynephilic males. Consistent with previous family studies conducted in both Euro-American and non-Euro-American cultures, the results presented here provide evidence that Istmo Zapotec muxes have more muxe relatives than gynephilic males.
Muxes reported having more muxe relatives in the paternal line than did gynephilic males Table 4. However, when comparing within groups, there were no significant differences with respect to the prevalence of muxe relatives in the paternal and maternal lines for both muxe and gynephilic male probands Table 5. Taken together, the results suggest that male androphilia clusters in the families of Istmo Zapotec muxes , and this clustering is equivalent in both the maternal and paternal lines.
It has been suggested that male androphilia is not a trait governed by simple Mendelian inheritance i. The current study provides findings that are consistent with this conclusion among the Istmo Zapotec. We did not find strong evidence implicating X-linked genetic factors as exclusively underpinning male androphilia because muxe probands did not exhibit a significant preponderance of muxe relatives in their maternal lines overall Table 5 , nor among the specific kin with whom they are capable of sharing X-linked genes i.
The fact that our data did not support an exclusively X-linked genetic explanation for male androphilia does not mean that genes on the X-chromosome do not play a role in the maintenance of male androphilia within this culture.
Instead, it is likely that Istmo Zapotec muxes and androphilic males elsewhere inherit both autosomal and sex-linked genes that act in synchrony i. In supporting this argument, both X-linked i. In addition to examining familial patterning of male androphilia, this study also produced a population prevalence estimate of male androphilia among the Istmo Zapotec.
The upper and lower bounds for this estimate were the proportion of muxe relatives among the families of all muxes combined and gynephilic males, respectively Table 4.
As such, the true prevalence of male androphilia among the Istmo Zapotec is estimated to fall between 3. The current estimate, while valuable, does not tell us the actual differences in prevalence between cisgender and transgender muxes in the Istmo, as participants were not asked to identify their muxe relatives as being muxe nguiiu or muxe gunaa. Nonetheless, the population prevalence rate of muxes , which is composed by a highly noticeable number of muxe gunaa , appears to be much higher than the prevalence of Euro-American transsexual women i.
The Istmo Zapotec are somewhat unique in that both cisgender and transgender forms of male androphilia occur at appreciable rates in the culture. It is unclear, however, how androphilic males within the same culture come to adopt either a cisgender or transgender identity.
Semenyna and colleagues [ 5 ] argued that the differences in gender identity and gender-role enactment between cisgender and transgender androphilic males are a result of the manner in which male androphilia is culturally elaborated. There are several factors that could influence whether an androphilic male in the Istmo Zapotec will adopt a cisgender instead of a transgender identity.
The Istmo Zapotec represent a suitable model in which to test whether these or other factors are responsible for the gender role enactment of the different muxe types, and what specific influences canalize the development of either a transgender or a cisgender identity among androphilic males.
This study, coupled with other family and twin studies see above , indicates that male androphilia is familial, while molecular genetic studies indicate that it is partly influenced by genetic factors. These insights, however, raises further questions as to how exactly genes associated with male androphilia persist across generations given that androphilic males reproduce at far lower rates than gynephilic males, if at all [ 2 , 6 ]. The KSH holds that genes for male androphilia persist over evolutionary time if androphilic males behave altruistically e.
This altruism may then increase kin fitness, thus offsetting the costs of not reproducing directly [ 53 ]. Research conducted on cisgender androphilic males in industrialized cultures has provided little support for the KSH [ 2 , 54 — 58 ].
Because the transgender form of male androphilia appears to be ancestral to the cisgender form [ 65 ], the former likely represents a better model when testing evolutionary hypotheses pertaining to male androphilia than the later. The SAGH——a complementary rather than competing hypothesis——states that genes associated with male androphilia reduce reproduction when present in males, but increase reproduction when present in the female relatives of androphilic males [ 16 ].
It is possible that the existence of reproductive stopping rules, which leads to lower fertility rates in Euro-American cultures, limits the increase in female reproduction that is hypothesized by the SAGH. Additionally, the results presented in this study are consistent with the SAGH, in that families of muxes were comprised of a higher number of total relatives compared to those of gynephilic males Table 4.
Nonetheless, a detailed comparison of the expression of kin-directed altruism, as well as the offspring production among the extended relatives of Istmo Zapotec gynephilic males and muxes , should be conducted in order to adequately test both the KSH and the SAGH.
Given the inconsistencies across studies associated with the KSH and the SAGH, the Istmo Zapotec offers a compelling locale to conduct further tests among a non-Euro-American, high fertility population where male androphilia is commonly expressed in both the transgender and cisgender form. There are several limitations in the current study that deserve comment.
First, the identity status of muxe relatives was not corroborated with the male relatives themselves. That being said, none of the family studies that have been conducted to date have independently corroborated the sexual orientation of the relatives of participants. We suspect that Istmo Zapotec participants are probably less likely to misreport the sexual orientation of their male relatives compared to Euro-American study participants, because the former live in a culture where androphilic males constitute a distinct gender category, in which identification as muxe ——whether nguiiu or gunaa ——is both obvious and an unambiguous indicator of male androphilia [ 34 , 35 ], whereas the latter do not.
Furthermore, during many of the interviews, participants consulted with nearby members of their family in order to provide a precise report of their family pedigree. To a large extent, this reflects the reality of conducting fieldwork in a collectivistic cultural context where individuals are in close proximity to their family much of the time.
The advantage of this is that information provided by the probands can be corroborated, corrected, or elaborated upon by those family members who are present. Moreover, the sexual activity and orientation of individuals is the source of much monitoring and gossip and, as such, is rarely kept secret to the extent that is possible in more individualist cultures.
The disadvantage is that group differences could conceivably exist between those who provide information versus those who have input from family members. We did not perceive any differences in this regard, but we have no data that speaks to this possibility.
This issue could be addressed in future studies. Second, the aims of this study were to determine patterns of familial clustering and prevalence of male androphilia among the Istmo Zapotec as opposed to patterns and prevalence of the specific form of male androphilia i. Consequently, participants were not asked if their muxe relatives identified as muxe gunaa or muxe nguiiu.
As such, we are only able to draw firm conclusions regarding the familial patterning of male androphilia in general, but not the specific ways cisgender and transgender male androphilia cluster in families.
Because male androphilia occurs at a relatively low frequency in any population, this study utilized a network sampling procedure.
It is possible that this method produced a sampling bias, resulting in an unrepresentative sample of Istmo Zapotec muxes , men, or both. Nonetheless, future research conducted in the Istmo Zapotec could consider using random sampling procedures.
This is the first study that has compared cisgender and transgender androphilic males in the same culture, showing that both report analogous proportions of androphilic male relatives, and a familial patterning of male androphilia that is overwhelmingly similar. The findings presented in this study are in accordance with previous research, which suggest that both forms of male androphilia share similar biological foundation.
Future studies should directly assess different biological traits e. We thank Dan Weeks, Julio C. Various stages of this research were supported by grants awarded by the University of Lethbridge Research Development Fund www. The funders had no role in the study design, data, collection, and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. PLoS One. Published online Feb Francisco R.
Scott W. Paul L. Elisabetta Palagi, Editor. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Received Jan 17; Accepted Nov 8. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Abstract Male androphilia i. Introduction Male androphilia refers to male sexual attraction and arousal to other adult males. Based on these aims, and on the literature mentioned above, our hypotheses and predictions were as follows: Hypothesis 1.
Participants Consistent with previous family studies conducted in Samoa [ 5 , 26 ], all participants were recruited using a network sampling procedure which consisted of contacting randomly chosen initial participants, who gave referrals for additional participants, who in turn provided further referrals, and so on. Biographic information Participants were asked to report information regarding their age in years.
Measures Participants were interviewed using questionnaires, which were available in Spanish after being translated and back-translated by two fluent Spanish-English speakers. Statistical analyses Mann-Whitney U tests where employed when comparing the average proportion of muxe relatives between Istmo Zapotec muxe gunaa and muxe nguiiu in the paternal line, maternal line, and both lines combined Table 1.
Table 1 Comparisons of the prevalence of muxe relatives among muxe gunaa and muxe nguiiu. Open in a separate window. Table 2 Within group comparisons of the prevalence of paternal and maternal muxe relatives of muxe gunaa and muxe nguiiu.