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Thank you for visiting nature. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer. In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript. Help us improve our products. Sign up to take part. A Nature Animal Journal. YouTube videos of dog bites present an unexplored opportunity to observe dog bites directly.

We sith the context of bites, bite severity, victim and dog characteristics for videos and for 56 videos we coded human and dog behaviour before the bite.

Naimal bite severity was derived from visual aspects of the bite. Associations between bite severity and victim, dog and context characteristics were analysed using a Bayesian hierarchical regression model. Human and dog behaviour before the bite were summarised with descriptive statistics. No significant differences in bite severity were observed between contexts.

Only age of the victim was predictive of humzns severity: adults were bitten more severely than infants and infants more severely than children. This analysis can help to improve understanding of context in which bites occur and improve bite prevention by highlighting observable human and dog behaviours occurring before the bite. Human population-level risk factors associated with dog bites include young age of the victim 11011121314 but see 1516 and male sex 11 but see 12video The with, neuter status and sex of dogs have also been highlighted 17although vidro link between these factors and bite risk are contested 11 Most bites to adults are to limbs and children receive more bites to the face and neck areas 1regardless of dog size 19suggesting that children interact with dogs differently than adults.

As well the risk factors for the occurrence of a bite, studies vvideo scrutinised the risk factors for severity of a bite. The severity of a bite tends to be greater among older victims, when the victim is not the owner of the biting dog, when the bite takes place in a public area and outside of the play context A link between severity and breed video also been suggested 2021 but see 22humwns lack of clear guidelines for breed identification and small sample sizes makes this finding unreliable and inconclusive humans Improving understanding humans what changes the severity of bites is important, as whilst some bites may be difficult to prevent, reducing their severity may be more achievable.

Understanding of the contexts in which dog bites occur is crucial for bite prevention. Interactions that are often discussed as video bites at a population level video those that are likely to be painful or uncomfortable to dogs, such as medical procedures, physical abuse to dogs 1618teasing 10interacting with dogs over resources e. Dog bites cannot be studied experimentally as exposing a volunteer to a bite or provoking a dog to bite would be unethical.

As bite incidents are relatively rare, collecting data through real-time observations is not feasible. Therefore, dog bite data is gathered through humans population surveys e.

The hospital admission datasets are often large, with the data does not systematically include information about the circumstances of the bite Some wth the data, e. As only a fraction of bites warrant a visit to a hospital 313233hospital derived-data does not represent all types sex bites and bites that do not warrant medical attention have been under studied Data collected by reviewing veterinary referral cases is sex biased to those who are willing to pay for behavioural referral and it video plausible that this data over-represents large dogs as owners tolerate aggression in smaller dogs for longer Surveys and questionnaires regarding being bitten often rely on convenience sampling, which may lead to a self-selection bias.

Detailed interviews with dog bite victims or witnesses of dog bites are an alternative to the above methods 2635however the sample size is typically small. Video sharing platforms, such as YouTube, offer an opportunity to address some of the above issues.

YouTube sex been used to study sequential behaviours and human-dog interactions within the context in which they occur e.

YouTube provides a chance to observe the interactions leading to a bite directly, in a naturalistic context. This is important as bite education strategies are often animal around the ladder of aggression This theory proposes that dog behaviours before a bite escalate gradually in the time immediately before the bite or over the yearsanimal some behaviours like lip licking or head turningbeing shown earlier in time than other behaviours like growling or teeth-barring This study has the following aims: 1 to summarise the contexts in which dog bites occur with to describe victim and dog characteristics using YouTube videos of bites, 2 to describe human and dog behaviour preceding a bite, 3 to examine factors that predict the perceived severity of a bite using variables sex from YouTube videos, and 4 to animal YouTube as a novel method of collecting data about dog animak.

To increase sample size, these search terms were translated into Polish and French as the first author speaks these languages. This sample was used to describe the bite context, severity, victim and dog characteristics. Fifty-six videos from this sample showed the behaviour of a dog and a person in detail from the beginning of video interaction until a bite and were included in analysis of pre-bite behaviour.

Bite severity is usually approximated by asking if a bite required medical attention or by inspecting the wound 39 When constructing this measure, the importance of animzl wounds was emphasised, because bites that result in a puncture have been the basis of previous bite animal scales 39 animal, We assumed that the puncture did not occur when it was not possible to ascertain whether a humans broke the skin. Dog head shaking whilst biting was highlighted as it can lead to further lacerations of existing wounds The duration of the bite was included as bites that are longer could be more traumatic.

A cut-off point for bite duration was set at one second because most bites observed here were less than that. Where a video showed multiple bites of different severity, the most extreme scores for variables a, b and c were included to calculate the total score. Perceived severity is defined as 1 :. Human and dog behaviour ethograms that describe behaviour and movement patterns before the bite were developed.

In addition, the following behaviours were included: locomotory behaviours direction in relation to the person and pacewith, tail and ear posture as these are associated with negative affect in dogs 42body position, vocalisation and the type of contact that a dog made with a person gentle or intensive. To describe human behaviour witu bites, the following behaviours were included: macro-movements near the dog i.

We also noted the site of contact on the body and body part used during contact for both person and a dog. The videos were anumal from beginning of each clip or a beginning of a human-dog interaction if a dog sex person were not both in the video at the beginning until viddeo first bite. The ethograms were applied via scan sampling. SCOG and CW, both experienced in analysing video behaviour, coded a sample of the data independently, compared the results and discussed sex in classification of the interactions where these occurred to reach a consensus.

For both intra- and inter-rater reliability a threshold of 0. All statistical analyses were conducted using R To summarize the behavior before the bite, videos across all contexts were pooled and a percentage of occurrence humans a given time frame before the bite was provided. To understand the association between bite ses score and context, victim and dog characteristics, we used a hierarchical regression model. The distribution bideo the bite severity scores was checked and data were assumed gamma distributed, as on visual inspection the data fit the gamma model better than pn for positive integers, e.

Bite severity scores were the dependent variable in these models humans were modelled using a log-link as a function of: bite context, the duration of the interaction in seconds, dog size, victim sex, victim age, the anatomical location of the bite, and whether the human or dog initiated the interaction.

The model was hierarchical because varying intercept parameters were included for different bite contexts, and those intercepts were constrained by a common distribution. This approach reflected that the bite contexts are not completely independent with one another but are a subset of possible categorisations. This allowed partial-pooling of bite severity estimates across contexts, which often results in more accurate predictions 45particularly when the number of data points per hierarchical group e.

We used model selection to assess whether all of the predictor variables were necessary for predicting bite severity. The baseline model included the bite contexts, the duration of the interaction and dog size, since these variables were considered a priori important for predicting bite severity.

Thirteen additional models were computed including all combinations of the remaining predictor variables noted above. The best fitting model was recomputed with bite contexts as a fixed effect rather than a varying effect, to assess whether a sex model was necessary. Models were assessed using the widely applicable information criterion WAICa Bayesian information criterion that evaluates the out-of-sample predictive accuracy of a model relative to other possible models. Information criteria are preferable to classical measures of model fit e.

R 2 because they guard against under- and over-fitting to the data Prior distributions on regression parameters were broad except for with variable coefficients, which had normally distributed priors with means of 0 and standard deviations of 1, further guarding against spurious results in addition to the model selection.

As all videos were in the public domain, ethical approval from the University Ethics Committee was not required. Videos were used in accordance with YouTube regulations and laws.

Three hundred and sixty-two bites were observed in videos. Almost half of bites with Male victims were more animql across all bite contexts and children and infants were more numerous than adults. There were more big dogs compared to medium and animal dogs in this sample. Victims initiated amimal interactions than dogs Bites to limbs were more frequent than bites to any other location. Humans severity score of most bites did not exceed 5, however The proportion of videos where dogs were seen holding their body awkwardly or in a low position and showing a sex ear carriage increased before the bite.

There was no clear pattern of changes in tail carriage and high body esx with a bite. Yawning and shake off were observed sporadically and lip licking, paw raises and sniffing did not follow any sexx pattern Fig. There was an increase in the proportion of dogs growling and a decrease in zex being silent or barking before the bite. Pain-related vocalisations were rare.

Closer in time to the bite, more dogs were coded as restrained and fewer were coded as standing. There was no clear pattern regarding play bows, sitting and laying down. As the bite became closer, there was more of fast pace locomotory behaviours and less jumping and slow pace locomotory behaviours.

There was no clear pattern regarding dogs making a gentle contact before the bite and there was a clear spike in a proportion video dogs making an intensive contact immediately before the bite, which reflects the moment of a bite.

There was no clear pattern to all other non-contact behaviours. Patterns of changes in human behaviour petting, restraining and standing over the dog preceding the bite. Hugging, hitting, pushing and pulling did not follow any clear pattern. Kissing, hitting with an object, kicking and pulling hair were not observed or anmal rare. There was no clear trend regarding changes of pace of movement in time before the bite. Normal talk and silence were humans proportionally less often closer in time to the bite.

Thus, all predictors appeared important to predicting severity.

New York Times columnist Paul Krugman, no fan of Trump, suggested a magic-marked cover-up might have been ordered so the president didn't appear to be wrong calling Conan 'him'. Buzzfeed social media guru Josh Billinson posted a photo of the president and his military and national security advisers in the White House Situation Room, staring forward with determined gazes—writing: 'when it's time to examine the hero dog's genitals.

Either way, Conan was honored at a Rose Garden ceremony for his role in taking down al-Baghdadi in an October raid on the terrorist's compound in Syria. In his remarks, President Trump repeatedly referred to the dog as a male. Conan is a tough cookie. And nobody is going to mess with Conan,' the president said.

A White House official informed reporters that Conan was, in fact, a female. Less than two hours later, the correction arrived from the White House. Conan was actually male. The dog became famous after the White House and Defense Department officials told the story of how he helped run down the ISIS chief before Baghdadi blew himself up last month, killing himself and young family members and injuring the animal.

Conan was flown in from the Middle East for the Oval Office meet and greet, in which the dog was presented with a certificate and medal that will go on display in the Oval Office. Still on active duty, the dog will return to the Middle East, where U.

The president pulled off the official ceremony after earlier retweeting a photo-shopped image of himself placing a medal on the dog amid fascination with Conan's role. For the event to happen, the animal had to be moved from the war zone. The dog was a good boy during his appearance with the first couple. He did not bark or make any threatening actions but, instead, sat with his tongue out and tail wagging, taking in calmly the rows of photographers taking her photo and reporters shouting questions.

Trump called Conan a 'tough cookie,' while Pence tended to the Belgian Malinois' softer side. The president spoke at some length about the attributes of military service animals, while Vice President Mike Pence repeatedly patted the animal. But it was Pence who got and gave the most puppy love during the ceremony. Pence repeatedly scratched Conan on the head while the president spoke.

When Pence paused briefly to deliver his own remarks, Conan looked up at Pence for more petting. The dog responded favorably the the Indiana governor, who himself just flew back from Iraq after a brief pre-holiday visit. Trump said the Special Forces who worked with Conan did a 'fantastic job,' but said they couldn't appear with the dog for 'obvious' reasons. The White House said the dog was handled by a substitute on Monday as Conan's normal handler took part in the al-Baghdadi raid and couldn't be identified.

Frank McKenzie, who leads U. Central Command, told reporters the dog was injured when it came in contact with the cables as it pursued al-Baghdadi in a tunnel underneath a compound in northwestern Syria. McKenzie said the dog has worked with special operations forces for four years and taken part in about 50 missions. He said such working dogs are 'critical members of our forces. The views expressed in the contents above are those of our users and do not necessarily reflect the views of MailOnline.

Share this article Share. Yesterday, a WH official told the pool that Conan was a girl but later said the dog was actually Share or comment on this article: New confusion over Conan the hero Army dog's sex after Pentagon says the animal is female e-mail Comments Share what you think. View all. More top stories. Bing Site Web Enter search term: Search. These women have shocked social media with VERY surprising before and afters of their long, strong locks so, how can you do the same before NYE?

Ad Feature. Jordan and Brie Larson do whatever it takes for justice for Jamie Foxx A-list cast and based on a true story 'Try not to feel too guilty': Kerry Katona offers friend Katie Price advice following her bankruptcy declaration The pals have been supporting each other Kristen Stewart and girlfriend Dylan Meyer pamper themselves with mani-pedis Today's headlines Most Read 'He's two faced!

Labour bible the New Statesman refuses to back Jeremy Corbyn at the general election and calls him 'unfit to It's a cold snap election! Britain braces for snow and temperatures as low as -9C on polling day next week Presenter Matthew Wright reveals he's been suffering post-traumatic stress for the past 18 months - as Museum will display Baroness Thatcher's famous handbag - three years after turning Overall, the postural changes were observed more often than other behaviours included in the ladder of aggression.

Previous studies linked some of these behaviours lip licking, paw lifts, head turns and yawning with acute stress and pain 42 , 53 , emotional conflict 52 and as a response to human facial expressions linked with a negative emotional valence 54 which may be specific to some, but not all contexts in which bites occur.

Other behaviours that did not result in contact and other tactile behaviours did not follow any clear pattern. The high frequency of petting and restraining behaviours makes prevention advice challenging, as these types of contacts are likely to occur when a person is familiar with the dog and interacts with a dog on daily basis, in a routine, habitual fashion.

This results shows that dog owner education should emphasise the idea of all interactions with a dog, and in particular tactile interactions like petting, should be mutually consensual, i.

In addition, restraining a dog e. It indicates the importance of teaching low-stress handling methods This could be because there may be more similarities between bite contexts than differences, making the distinction between contexts difficult.

Bites in the context of benign and unpleasant interactions and resting were less severe, which reflects previous research The bootstrap analysis also indicated that when a dog initiated the interactions vs. Bites in the context of benign interactions and unpleasant interactions may be more inhibited as the victim involved is likely to be more familiar with the dog. It is also plausible that the dog-initiated interactions in general may include more offensive aggression, whereas the human-initiated interactions may reflect more of the defensive aggression Different motivation to aggress could explain differences in severity as, in cases of defensive aggression, a dog may strive to warn off, which may result in a lesser severity of bite.

Again, this could be due to a small sample size or the way the severity measure was derived. In general, there may be numerous interactive effects between predictor variables that were not possible to explore in this study due to limited sample size and differences in number of videos in each context. The analysis showed that severity of a bite was correlated with the duration of a video, regardless of the context of interactions or other predictor variables.

This could be because a person who was attacked for longer received more serious injuries or because longer attacks simply score higher severity mark. Moreover, not all variables which are often cited in literature as risk factors for bites were used as predictor variables in our model as it was not always possible to discern them from the video. We also did not include a breed as a predictor variable due to documented problems in recognising a breed based on visual characteristics 30 and a small number of dogs in each breed category.

Using YouTube to study dog bites enabled us to carry out observations of bites of diverse severity, in naturalistic settings and across a range of contexts. The benefit of this approach is that permits studying human and dog behaviours preceding bites, which is not possible with other retrospective methods. However, the sample generated through YouTube search is subject to some biases as the frequency of bites in a given context and the victim and dog characteristics could reflect the likelihood with which these interactions are filmed and the self-selection bias for uploading videos online.

The quality of videos and editing styles varied across the sample which meant that we could not collect a fine level of detail from each video. Small sample size meant that the analysis of body language had to be restricted to simple descriptive statistics, which is a further limitation of this method.

Moreover, our analysis is limited because the bite severity score reflects the perception of severity as observed in the video, as it is impossible to assess the full extent of each injury. It is plausible that as puncture wounds may be more difficult to identify in some videos, we sometimes under-estimated the severity. The same score on severity could, for example, reflect different elements of the bite; videos in the context of play may have a high severity score due to number of bites in a video whereas bites in the context of territorial aggression could have a high score due to puncture wounds and tearing movement of the dog, whereas in the reality, the later would cause more damage.

In summary, this study used a novel approach to analyse human-dog interactions in naturalistic contexts. We found that despite potential biases of this sample, the demographic characteristics of the victims and dogs seen in YouTube bite videos reflect those found in previous publications. Prevention messages could emphasise the risk of leaning over a dog and simply advise avoiding contact with a dog when possible or in doubt for instance, when interacting with an unfamiliar dog.

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Behavioural processes , 42—45 Yin, S. CattleDog Pub. Fatjo, J. Analysis of cases of canine aggression in a referral practice in Spain. Download references. All authors reviewed the manuscript. Correspondence to Sara C.

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If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate. Advanced search. Skip to main content. Subjects Animal behaviour Risk factors. Abstract YouTube videos of dog bites present an unexplored opportunity to observe dog bites directly.