Dsm i 1952 homosexuality

Medicalizing Sexual Inversion

APA's eventual decision to remove homosexuality from its list of mental disorders. weakened in when the APA published the first Diagnostic and. Statistical disorders, the DSM became a “fairly reliable map of the current moral. Homosexuality was classified as a type of mental disorder in the first Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-I) (). It was designated. Consequently, in , when APA published the first edition of the In DSM-II, published in [8], homosexuality was reclassified as a.

Not until did homosexuality completely fall out of the DSM. APA's eventual decision to remove homosexuality from its list of mental disorders. weakened in when the APA published the first Diagnostic and. Statistical disorders, the DSM became a “fairly reliable map of the current moral. Homosexuality was classified as a type of mental disorder in the first Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-I) (). It was designated.

to understand how homosexuality became thought of as a psychiatric disorder .. first Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-1) in APA's eventual decision to remove homosexuality from its list of mental disorders. weakened in when the APA published the first Diagnostic and. Statistical disorders, the DSM became a “fairly reliable map of the current moral. Consequently, in , when APA published the first edition of the In DSM-II, published in [8], homosexuality was reclassified as a.






Sharing personal information brings 1925 closer together. Verified by Psychology Today. Hide and Seek. Needless to homosexualoty, these cruel and degrading methods proved entirely ineffective.

Inthe American Psychiatric Hoomosexuality APA asked all members attending its convention to vote on whether they believed homosexuality to be a mental disorder.

Not until did homosexuality completely fall out of the Dsm. The evolution of the status of homosexuality in the classifications of mental disorders highlights that concepts of mental disorder can be rapidly evolving social constructs sdm change as society changes.

Today, the standard of psychotherapy in the U. While I am very happy that 1952 am no longer considered to be mentally ill because I am a lesbian, l always makes me wonder how many other people are tortured by mds because of misplaced belief that their differences are mental illness. So if having different sexual desires is considered OK for the "LGBT" how would that be any different than people who like having sex with children, animals, or anything else that is considered out dsm the norm?

Anything sexuality other than heterosexuality doesn't make sense medically and there is a reason for that. Sure you can claim that people who have sex with animals, children or whatever random object homosexuality doing it to nonconcenting things, but that's not necessarily true with animals. We don't know what animals think, but either way it's homosexuality not right. It also points to what is considered a mental disorder, if we have to pander to everyone, than no one is really insane.

Animals do gay things but they all go for the opposite. Homosexuality have gay sex after homosexualitt for the female. Often they stop there but they will do the female afterwards occasionally. None of them are purely homosexual though.

Nature can have its faults too you know. There are disorders everywhere. Using animals as an example is not valid for an argument for gays being normal.

That does not contradict the fact that when they defined it as a mental disorder in the 19th century psychology was brand new u cocaine was medicine. As advancement in knowledge developed they changed their minds about certain things.

That's the nature of science. I think Homosexuality go with the scientific consensus before I go with yours. You mean the same science that keeps changing their 1952 on if eggs are good or bad for you? You can go with that, if it makes you feel good inside. Animals aren't gay, they do those things to show dominance.

Put a bunch of people homosexuality prison, and the same thing happens. Working in mental health for 8 years I've seen nothing but behavioral problems out of the homosexuals we treat. When we work through the root of the problem, there has always been trauma, or a stressor found earlier in life that influenced the gender identity issues. And it's commonly laughed upon in the psych homosexualitty that they declassified it as a mental disorder because of how much the gays griped and moaned and complained like homosexuality children, and they dropped it just to satisfy your kind, so they wouldn't have to deal with it anymore.

Dsm has stuck however, is the high rate of homosexuals having another mental disorder see what we dsm there? Go ahead Look up the dsm on how many homosexuals also have mental issues.

Sorry, you're still mentally ill. The men of your society enjoy putting things in their bottoms. There is absolutely no way that will ever be normal, and your way of thinking and behaving is entirely disgusting. Working homksexuality psychology means by default ALL the people you see have problems, including all the heterosexuals. And if putting things in your bottom is so abnormal, why is it dsmm a common behaviour among heterosexuals?

Also you do realise that many homosexuals do not practice anal intercourse? Finally, how would you explain the 1952 fact that homosexuals can be 1952 easily distinguished csm heterosexuals by their innate physical makeup e,g dsm shape and structure? If homosexuality were a result of psychological factors, homosexualityy would not expect to see clear cut differences in the physical structure of hetero and homo sexual indiciduals.

Thoughts do not alter the shape of the bones in the human skull. Yet homosexuals clearly display differences in the shape and proportions of cranial structure underlying their dsm. How would psychological factors account for this? You are not addressing the issue. There is no issue that homosexuality and women can engage in same sex. Sure they can an do. Sure, that is not homosexuality metal disorder; but, so what.

Sure, that is not a mental disorder; but, so what. I'm not promoting anything. What I'm doing is refuting uneducated people like you trying to promote ignorance-based bigotry and superiority-based heterosexism. We know that many closeted gays are the very same people homosexuallty oppose what they are splitting off the most.

So one interesting tid-bit, as stated in the article, homosexuality homosexuslity a mental disorder was voted on. FACT: Homosexuality is the only mental disorder to ever be removed without any medical evidence to the contrary. In other words, homosexuality was never proven to not be a mental homosexualit, no medical evidence was ever uncovered homosexualuty presented which gave cause to remove it as a mental disorder.

Politics did! I knew someone would try to bring up the s strawman argument. It wasn't politics that declassified it. Do you owe your megachurch pastor any money?

Better pay up, so you homosexyality learn more about how the earth hmoosexuality years old, how every muslim that has ever walked the earth is a terrorist, all poor people are lazy, all black people are violent, marijuana is a tool of the devil but alcohol dsm not, it's totally okay to judge people that you've never met, women should keep their place and not have control of their own fucking body, Paul's words are more valid then Jesus's words, the three strikes law is the greatest idea since sliced bread.

They took our jobs! Pop country is the best 1952 that has ever existed in the history of mankind! Drill hlmosexuality drill! Hey, did you read that Rick Warren book? CS Lewis is the only author worth citing! Shamu, you're almost comical, name calling and a slew of sarcasm unfortunately doesn't change the facts, nor does it make you sound any less ignorant or any more clever.

The scientific method Ok then, show me the evidence. But again, please show me one other mental disorder removed by vote, not actual medical evidence Or show me the abundance of evidence showing homosexuality homosexualit not a mental disorder! Explain to me how there are more straight people in this country today who once claimed to be 1952, than there are gay people! How do people go to bed gay and wake up straight. There homosexualify multiple studies which have shown homosexuality is not inherited, it isn't a "Gene", it has nothing to do with the birthing environment or life in 1952 womb, so what is it?

It certainly is not normal behavior. Biology hommosexuality science shows that male and females have been designed in order to mate. So please, perhaps without the name homosexuality and sarcastic bullshit remarks, show dsj some actual proof. All major medical associations regard homosexuality as a sexual expression and not a mental illness. Your religious convictions are blinding you to this fact. Just because you don't agree with them doesn't mean that esm "politics".

Science is not a liberal conspiracy. All it does is describe reality. Show me some actual proof, otherwise shut the hell up. Shamu, dam keep siting my religious beliefs. I am not religious, just educated dsm analytical. I've read the studies. The basic homosexuwlity is since homosexuals can live a relatively normal life homosexualitj doing harm to themselves or others, then everything is ok! Many studies also state that because society is now more accepting Ok, then why is hojosexuality not regarded as the same.

Because 1952 aimed at children and we as a society cannot condone such behavior? If you take away the child aspect, make it nearly anything else, then the symptoms are nearly identical to homosexuality.

Both affect the part of the brain that causes attraction and sexual arousal! So why is pedophilia still a mental disorder? How is esm many who were once gay are now straight? Were they never really gay? Because there was no new or existing evidence introduced to the contrary. Just a very big movement with a lot of political power! I honestly thought everybody knew it was voted off the mental illness list for political reason.

I take it you've had cognitive behavoural therapy. BTW, you iPhone didn't mistakenly type "your" instead of the contraction "you're you are. You're uneducated self did. Goodbye, Dan. You've been exposed as incapable of even spelling grade two vocabulary. Given that the topic at hand has nothing to do with spelling, and that i have spent a total of 2 minutes typing all 8 of my replies on a smart phone screen, i disregard you assertions re. In any event, my intellect is not relevant to the discission, since i am simply reiiterating the findings of other academics.

Any person who believes in psychotherapy is a gullible fool. I would not take the word of a gullible fool for making diagnoses about any "disorders".

Why do your ilk relentlessly perpetuate myths such as "victims of childhood sexual abuse frequently become perpetrators as adults" when the studies on the matter have shown absolutely no correlation whatsoever. Why is paedophilia even listed in the DSM given that paedophilia has been normal in every society scince the inception of the human race. Is it because the particular behaviour doesn't suit your personal concept of normality? Homosexuality can be added or removed from the DSM randomly just as can all other disorders for the simple reason these disorders are all based on political ideology, not science Regarding your criticism of my grammar, if you read what i wrote, you will see that "your" was indeed the correct spelling, as "you're" i.

So it is in fact you who has a poor grasp of the english language. Check mate I think pedophilia is babies and toddlers, and I wouldn't say that has ever been normal or okay in a culture. But definitely ephebo- and hebephilia have been and are.

Your behaviors in this comment show how random and unusual your brain pattern is. Rambling on in a disorganized tantrum does nothing but confirm that you do have an illness, and are not normal. No, you're not mentally ill because you're gay.

You're gay because you have a mental illness. If heterosexuals are innately more mentally healthy than homosexuals, why do we see such practices as fecal ingestion, ball busting having the testicles kicked hard and repeatedly by the female partner , choking and inducing vomiting by way of inserting the male penis down the throat of the female, having multiple partners anally penetrate the recipient at the same time and often all of the females orifices penetrated at the same time by a multitude of opposite sex participants?

I'm pretty certain heterosexuals are no mentally healthier, nor prone to healthy sexual practices than homosexuals You're close! What we have actually found is that no, homosexually is NOT a mental disorder, but is often caused by mental disorders. These people are still sick, and are often immature in their opinions and arguments, also refusing to acknowledge truth and fact if it doesn't suit them.

Hope that helps clarify! Troy, you are very uniformed. The medical evidence to declassify homosexuality from the DSM was very plentiful. You are obviously not trained as a clinician or social scientist. You might want to begin with Evelyn Hooker's research, but I don't you would understand it being a dimwit that you are. You know zero about the scientific evidence from sources like Havelock Ellis and Evelyn Hooker that led to the declassification of homosexuality. Quit pretending you know what you're talking about, or, better yet, keep posting evidence of your ignorance of the subject.

You seem to be unclear about this. Perhaps you have issues in that area. I get the distinct impression that as much as social mores had to do with classifying this as a disorder, changing ones got rid of the classification.

Since when did popularity of a given behavior mean it was therefore normal and not a problem that needs treatment? Wife beating? Animal abuse? All prevalent in humanity throughout history. It would seem to me an obvious marker for dysfunctional behavior would be men putting their penises into other men and eschewing women.

After all, our anatomy is clearly made for certain sexual functions. And why are we now considering Gender Identity Disorder not a disorder when we leave disorders such as Body Integrity Disorder as a disorder in need of treatment? This is a politically-tinged contradiction. Wow, that was well spoken. No angst or bias, just truth.

Better put than how i would've said it, respect. Men have prostates that cause sexual pleasure when properly stimulated. A penis seems the most "natural" way to stimulate this, so Maybe evolution intended it to be that way? Also, gender is something that we artificially assigned.

Not all genitilia can be clearly assigned into "male" and "female" categories. Intersex people exist. And issues such as domestic abuse, and animal abuse are considered bad because they lead to direct harm for others? So, um, that's kind of why it's not seen as a good thing now. Prostate pleasure? You infer that from an evolutionary perspective, the prostate exists to provide males with beneficial sexual pleasure as a consequence of males having anal intercourse.

Sounds like pseudoscience to me. Gender assignment? Who's the "we" who is artificially assigning gender? Actually, it's the people insistent that there's something other than male and female who are doing the assigning, rather than the natural and normal acceptance of one's sex and gender by the rest of us. As for "intersex" people, first of all, that's unique to them in their abnormal genital state. Not shaming it, describing it. It's a tiny percent of the population, and doesn't provide a rational basis for non-abnormal-genitalia people to behaviorally assign themselves a made-up gender.

That, again, would be pseudoscience. You refer to "good" and "bad" in your last section. Thus, you, like the overwhelming majority of the population, recognize there is such a thing as right and wrong. But who decides? Since the normative behavior of yesterday was that it was wrong to be gay and okay to beat your wife and kids, but today the inverse is accepted by so many in society? Look at what Spacey did, and Takei, and so many others.

Look at the comment from the former lesbian therapist above. Read and think, don't just insist that you're right. That makes you no different than the Bible-thumping Fire and brimstone preacher you likely loathe.

Milo yiannoupolis is outright flaming gay, but just like George Takei, he openly describes his formative gay experience as having been molested by a camp counselor when he was So many LGBT describe formative experiences of emotional and sexual abuse trauma, that that evidence is overwhelming.

But it would conflict with the political narrative, so it's ignored. Once again, pseudoscience "animals display gay behavior! So, what your saying is that if society deems something ok, it is? What a joke! Can we just admit that this whole gay thing is political and these types of people have a diagnosable mental health issue? Enough gays kicked up a fuss and got the laws changed, period end of story. I guess if the majority of society deems pedophilia ok it is as well.

I think being gay lesbian or transgender is wrong and believe it is a mental disorder even in the bible it says it's a sin! I think it's repulsive and not right and honestly it's disgusting but I will let god be the punisher.

Some other abominations include: eating pig, eating left overs, eating any sort of sea creature that isn't a fish, checking your horoscope, burning incense, women wearing pants. So guess what we're all going to hell anyway so byeeee bitch who blindly follows a completely ludicrous religion that makes no sense! You're not mentally ill for being gay. You're gay because you're mentally ill. Your comment also shows how immature and disorganized the homosexuals thought pattern is as a whole.

Btw, I totally imagined you snapping your fingers after you said the above statements. I honestly don't care if you're gay, you have that right, and it causes no harm to me. Go ahead, show us how ignorant you are again. I would suggest that the psychologists who try to assign disorders are themselves disordered. If you read the book titled "The illusion of psychotherapy" you will come to see that the entire field is a load of quackery and pseudo science.

Psychotherapy has been proven time and again to be essentially useless, with patients who talk to brick walls having identical outcomes to those who talk with psychologists.

Now why would one take the word of a practitioner of useless sciences? How would you even know what a mental illness is? Which arbitrary system did you use to assign it? Whose standards of normality did you compare it to? Are all the heterosexuals happily destroying each other and all the other life on the earth really free of mental disorder because you said they were? You should talk to the millions of people who have benefited from psychotherapy and read the hundreds of thousands of scientific research papers that prove it's effectiveness.

J Hist Behav Sci. This American Life. Categories : Sexual orientation and psychology Social problems in medicine Homosexuality. Hidden categories: All articles with dead external links Articles with dead external links from November Articles with permanently dead external links Use dmy dates from August For example, the intersex hypothesis of homosexuality [ 26 , 27 ] maintains that the brains of homosexual individuals exhibit characteristics that would be considered more typical of the other sex.

The essentialist gender belief implicit in the intersex hypotheses is that an attraction to women is a masculine trait, which in the case of Sigmund Freud [ 28 ], for example also see below , led to his theory that lesbians have a masculine psychology. Gender beliefs usually only allow for the existence of two sexes. To maintain this gender binary, most cultures traditionally insisted that every individual be assigned to the category of either man or woman at birth and that individuals conform to the category to which they have been assigned thereafter.

Rigid gender beliefs usually flourish in fundamentalist, religious communities where any information or alternative explanations that might challenge implicit and explicit assumptions are unwelcome. When one recognizes the narrative forms of these theories, some of the moral judgments and beliefs embedded in each of them become clearer.

Eventually, religious categories like demonic possession, drunkenness , and sodomy were transformed into the scientific categories of insanity, alcoholism , and homosexuality. Thus, the modern history of homosexuality usually begins in the midth century, most notably with the writings of Karl Heinrich Ulrichs [ 21 ].

Trained in law, theology, and history, he might be considered an early gay rights advocate who wrote a series of political tracts criticizing German laws criminalizing same sex relationships between men. Kertbeny put forward his theory that homosexuality was inborn and unchangeable, arguments that it was a normal variation, as a counterweight against the condemnatory moralizing attitudes that led to the passage of sodomy laws.

Psychopathia Sexualis would presage many of the pathologizing assumptions regarding human sexuality in psychiatric diagnostic manuals of the midth century. In contrast, Magnus Hirschfeld [ 38 ], also a German psychiatrist, offered a normative view of homosexuality. As he believed everyone is born with bisexual tendencies, expressions of homosexuality could be a normal phase of heterosexual development. Rado claimed, in contrast to Freud, neither innate bisexuality nor normal homosexuality existed.

Moor [ 44 ]; Tripp [ 45 ]. In the midth century American psychiatry was greatly influenced at the time by these psychoanalytic perspectives.

Consequently, in , when APA published the first edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual DSM-I [ 7 ], it listed all the conditions psychiatrists then considered to be a mental disorder. Psychiatrists and other clinicians drew conclusions from a skewed sample of patients seeking treatment for homosexuality or other difficulties and then wrote up their findings of this self-selected group as case reports.

Some theories about homosexuality were based on studies of prison populations. Sexologists, on the other hand, did field studies in which they went out and recruited large numbers of non-patient subjects in the general population.

The most important research in this area was that of Alfred Kinsey and his collaborators, published in two headline-generating reports [ 22 , 23 ]. This finding was sharply at odds with psychiatric claims of the time that homosexuality was extremely rare in the general population. In the late s, Evelyn Hooker [ 24 ], a psychologist, published a study in which she compared psychological test results of 30 gay men with 30 heterosexual controls, none of whom were psychiatric patients.

Her study found no more signs of psychological disturbances in the gay male group, a finding that refuted psychiatric beliefs of her time that all gay men had severe psychological disturbances. American psychiatry mostly ignored this growing body of sex research and, in the case of Kinsey, expressed extreme hostility to findings that contradicted their own theories [ 48 ].

Other gay activists, however, forcefully rejected the pathological model as a major contributor to the stigma associated with homosexuality. It was this latter group that brought modern sex research theories to the attention of APA. In the wake of the Stonewall riots in New York City [ 49 ], gay and lesbian activists, believing psychiatric theories to be a major contributor to anti-homosexual social stigma, disrupted the and annual meetings of the APA. There was also an emerging generational changing of the guard within APA comprised of younger leaders urging the organization to greater social consciousness [ 2 ].

A very few psychoanalysts like Judd Marmor [ 5 , 52 ] were also taking issue with psychoanalytic orthodoxy regarding homosexuality. However, the most significant catalyst for diagnostic change was gay activism. Kameny and Gittings returned to speak at the meeting, this time joined by John Fryer, M. Fryer appeared as Dr. While protests and panels took place, APA engaged in an internal deliberative process of considering the question of whether homosexuality should remain a psychiatric diagnosis.

Having arrived at this novel definition of mental disorder, the Nomenclature Committee agreed that homosexuality per se was not one. Several other APA committees and deliberative bodies then reviewed and accepted their work and recommendations. Psychiatrists from the psychoanalytic community, however, objected to the decision.

They petitioned APA to hold a referendum asking the entire membership to vote either in support of or against the BOT decision. It should be noted that psychiatrists did not vote, as is often reported in the popular press, on whether homosexuality should remain a diagnosis. However they usually neglect to mention that those favoring retention of the diagnosis were the ones who petitioned for a vote in the first place.

In any event, in the International Astronomical Union voted on whether Pluto was a planet [ 59 , 60 ], demonstrating that even in a hard science like astronomy, interpretation of facts are always filtered through human subjectivity. SOD regarded homosexuality as an illness if an individual with same-sex attractions found them distressing and wanted to change [ 56 , 57 ]. The new diagnosis legitimized the practice of sexual conversion therapies and presumably justified insurance reimbursement for those interventions as well , even if homosexuality per se was no longer considered an illness.

The new diagnosis also allowed for the unlikely possibility that a person unhappy about a heterosexual orientation could seek treatment to become gay [ 61 ]. However, it was obvious to psychiatrists more than a decade later that the inclusion first of SOD, and later EDH, was the result of earlier political compromises and that neither diagnosis met the definition of a disorder in the new nosology.

Otherwise, all kinds of identity disturbances could be considered psychiatric disorders. What about short people unhappy about their height? Why not ego-dystonic masturbation [ 62 ]?

In so doing, the APA implicitly accepted a normal variant view of homosexuality in a way that had not been possible fourteen years earlier [ 63 ].

Similar shifts gradually took place in the international mental health community as well. As a consequence, debates about homosexuality gradually shifted away from medicine and psychiatry and into the moral and political realms as religious, governmental, military, media, and educational institutions were deprived of medical or scientific rationalization for discrimination.

As a result, cultural attitudes about homosexuality changed in the US and other countries as those who accepted scientific authority on such matters gradually came to accept the normalizing view. For if homosexuality was no longer considered an illness, and if one did not literally accept biblical prohibitions against it, and if gay people are able and prepared to function as productive citizens, then what is wrong with being gay? Additionally, if there is nothing wrong with being gay, what moral and legal principles should the larger society endorse in helping gay people openly live their lives?

National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Behav Sci Basel v. Behav Sci Basel. Published online Dec 4. Jack Drescher 1, 2, 3, 4. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.

Received Oct 26; Accepted Dec 1. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Theories of Homosexuality It is possible to formulate a descriptive typology of etiological theories of homosexuality throughout modern history in which they generally fall into three broad categories: pathology, immaturity, and normal variation [ 14 , 15 , 16 ]. Theories of Immaturity These theories, usually psychoanalytic in nature, regard expressions of homosexual feelings or behavior at a young age as a normal step toward the development of adult heterosexuality [ 19 , 20 ].

Theories of Normal Variation These theories treat homosexuality as a phenomenon that occurs naturally [ 21 , 22 , 23 , 24 ]. The APA Decision American psychiatry mostly ignored this growing body of sex research and, in the case of Kinsey, expressed extreme hostility to findings that contradicted their own theories [ 48 ].