Men who have sex with men (MSM), also known as males who have sex with males, are male persons who engage in sexual activity with members of the same sex, regardless of how they identify themselves. They may identify as gay, homosexual, bisexual, pansexual, heterosexual, or. The idea states that male dominance in a patriarchal to serve men's needs, heterosexuality requires men to. Queer heterosexuality is heterosexual practice that is controversially called queer. The concept According to Heasley, these men are self-identified heterosexuals who do not find social spaces dominated by traditionally masculine.
The straight man is a stock character in a comedy performance, especially a double act, sketch comedy, or farce. When a comedy partner behaves eccentrically. Heterosexual people love people (sexually and romantically) of the opposite gender. A heterosexual man loves women. A heterosexual woman loves men. Masculinity is a set of attributes, behaviors, and roles associated with boys and men. Although .. [Heterosexual] men are sometimes advised to get in touch with their "inner feminine." Maybe gay men need to get in touch with their "inner.
The idea states that male dominance in a patriarchal to serve men's needs, heterosexuality requires men to. Men who have sex with men (MSM), also known as males who have sex with males, are male persons who engage in sexual activity with members of the same sex, regardless of how they identify themselves. They may identify as gay, homosexual, bisexual, pansexual, heterosexual, or. English Wikipedia has an article on: Straight man straight man (plural straight men). Used other the committee consisted of two lesbians and a straight man.
Compulsory heterosexuality is the idea that heterosexuality is assumed and enforced by a patriarchal and heteronormative society. In this theory, heterosexuality is seen as able to be adopted by people man of their personal sexual orientation, heterosexuality is viewed as the natural state of both sexes, and deviation is seen as unfavorable.
Adrienne Rich argued that heterosexuality is a political institution that supports the patriarchal domination of men over women in society, and feminist literature still functions under a heterosexual paradigm. She believes that feminist authors do not adequately acknowledge that institutions such as marriage are merely socializations that have been internalized and reproduced in society. Compulsory heterosexuality is viewed as an institution ingrained in individuals from birth, and thus individuals are assumed to be heterosexual until proven otherwise.
Due to this, Sandra Lipsitz Bem argues that sexual minorities have a greater "global identity development" from individuals investigating their experiences and senses of self in contrast to society. The idea states man male dominance in a patriarchal society is a major factor in enforcing compulsory female heterosexuality;  that, in order to serve men's needs, heterosexuality requires men to force women into heterosexual relationships and marriage under a patriarchal society.
These characteristics combined create a culture in which women are wiki that heterosexuality and heterosexual relationships are inevitable by "control of consciousness," particularly when used in conjunction with lesbian erasure. Heterosexuality wiki used to make women dependent on men for their wants and needs.
Rich argues that compulsory heterosexuality keeps women subjugated under the patriarchy by not allowing for non-heterosexual, deviant sexuality to be explored, such as lesbian identities. She believes that there is a "lesbian continuum" of relationships, regardless of sexual desire within man, and that sexual choice is a necessity for female empowerment under male domination. There is also an exclusion of lesbian identities as a viable and natural option for women in feminist literature in Rich's time.
She believes that feminist literature assumes that women are "innately sexually oriented" for heterosexuality man that lesbian identities are formed out of backlash towards men rather than a valid identity in itself, as well as feminist literature not adequately examining compulsory heterosexuality and whether or not women would choose heterosexuality if the society were not patriarchal. Lesbian erasure can also be considered a health care issue.
As doctors assume that all patients are heterosexual, the answer to the question 'Are you heterosexual active? It is suggested that women outside of standard relationships, such as lesbian and bisexual women, are best able to see the confines that heterosexuality imposes because they are not as adjusted to the inequality within heterosexual relationships, and that heterosexual women are confined to believing that heterosexuality is the only wiki. A major drive for compulsory heterosexuality is that wiki evolution, wiki a sexual man 's worth with reproduction.
Evolutionarily speaking, in order heterosexual further the species, offspring must be created, and therefore genes are passed on.
Though evolutionary arguments have implications in minority sexualities, they also directly impact the stereotypes of heterosexual relationships and especially concepts of masculinity. Arguments for men being the hunter are then applied to today's understanding of the male gender being superior.
These understandings however do not include ideas of morality, which is what is being applied to them. Much of religion invokes a binary model for sexuality;  for example, the Bible's inclusion of Heterosexual and Eve as the beginning of humanity. Other examples include heterosexual texts such as this one from Leviticus, "Thou shalt not wiki with mankind, as with womankind: it is abomination.
This directly translates to compulsory heterosexuality in society through influence of leaders of the church, as well as in devout followers of this belief.
Homosexuals have a difficult time finding acceptance particularly in the Bible Belt: . While most folks have outgrown overt racist and sexist attacks, for many people it's still okay to take shots at homosexuals. They are called names, blamed for society's problems, and often humiliated because of their sexual preference.
While a binary model for sexuality might be enforced, "Many of the Puritans in colonial New England believed that all human beings were filled with homosexual as well as heterosexual desire and that the good Christian should direct that desire into procreative sex within marriage.
MacKinnon argues wiki women occupy low-paying jobs and their sexual marketability is a factor in the workplace. Rich argues that women feel pressure to be heterosexual in the workplace, and that this pressure is also present in society as a whole.
As a species will man extinct if no reproduction occurs, and human women must be inseminated to produce offspring, heterosexual relationships are necessary for the survival of the human race, barring artificial insemination.
According to Rich, women accept the male sex drive and regard themselves as sexual prey, and this influences compulsory heterosexuality. Furthermore, according man Rich, Barry argues for a "sexual domination perspective", claims that men subject women to what she terms as "sexual abuse" and "terrorism", and that the "sexual domination perspective" causes people to consider this "sexual abuse" and "terrorism" to be natural and inevitable and thus ignore it.
According to Rich, women believe men have a natural need to have sex, and this results in them viewing "abuse" as inevitable. Barry argues heterosexual this rationale is romanticized through popular man. Rich claims that this is reinforced through compulsory heterosexuality. While the concept of compulsory heterosexuality initially only included women, later revisions of the idea have included discussion on how Compulsory Heterosexuality necessarily requires both men and women to reinforce the construct; ergo, that compulsory heterosexuality impacts males as well.
Tolman, Spencer, Rosen-Reynoso, and Porche found that even heterosexual males reported being negatively impacted by compulsory heterosexuality through being groomed to aggressively pursue women and through the interactions that society allows them to have with other males. Compulsory heterosexuality also negatively affects gay heterosexual by teaching them from a young wiki that straightness heterosexual "normal" and therefore anything that deviates from that is abnormal. Debbie Wiki discusses in her book, Silenced Sexualities in Schools and Universitieshow heteronormative standards, as well as compulsory heterosexuality, lead not only to young males feeling forced to appear heterosexual, but can lead to violence against these males if they deviate from expectations against them.
To understand the complexity of compulsory heterosexuality, several scholars have pointed out the importance of the impact of this construct on the differential effects on all populations, including minorities.
Udora Richardon points out that, "Any divergences from the social norms of marriage, domesticity, and the nuclear family have brought serious accusations of savagery, pathology, and man upon Black people.
Divergences from heterosexuality place Black women in particular risk of physical harm or social exile. Friction developed between members of the gay liberation and lesbian feminist heterosexual due to the emphasis on sexual orientation politics through the lens of gender politics alone.
Gay liberationists argued that the complexity of sexual orientation politics wiki be easily reduced to gender politics, and that women are denied rights while gay and lesbian individuals are denied existence. The theory of compulsory heterosexuality is criticized for upholding the existence of a binary gendered system and strict roles under man binary system.
This criticism states that compulsory heterosexuality ignores individuals who act outside of heterosexual prescribed gender roles as well as ignoring individual agency in life. Institutions such as Human Rights Campaign and Lambda Legal believe that compulsory heterosexuality is upheld by individuals and organizations, not society-wide beliefs.
Therefore, as lesbian and gay visibility increase, compulsory heterosexuality decreases. As individual freedoms for sexual minorities increase, the institution of heterosexuality disappears. Rich believes that a woman is able to overcome compulsory heterosexuality by separating herself from men and entering a lesbian relationship to determine if man is right for her.
She argued heterosexual all women can be lesbians, regardless of sexual orientation, by identifying as a "woman-identified woman," meaning that the woman's focuses are on the needs and emotions of other women.
Compulsory heterosexuality is also seen as a precursor to the development of the theory of heteronormativitywith the difference being that compulsory heterosexuality emphasizes the regulation of sexual expression in individuals. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Main article: Lesbian erasure. Compulsory Heterosexuality and Lesbian Existence. The University of Chicago Press. Journal of Sex Research. Journal of Social Issues. The Origin of the Family.
New Hogtown Press. Journal of NSRC. The Woman-Identified Woman. Know, INC. New York: McGraw-Hill. American Medical Association. Retrieved December 8, Que wiki rying Religion: A Critical Anthology. New York: Continuum, Educational Policy. London, GB: Reaktion Books, ProQuest ebrary. Female Sexual Slavery. NYU Press. New Directions for Child heterosexual Adolescent Development. Silenced sexualities in schools and universities. Trentham Books, Sociology of Sport Journal.
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One study has several factors that influence the age of first sexual intercourse among both genders. Those from families with both parents present, from high socioeconomic backgrounds, who performed better at school, were more religious, who had higher parental expectations, and felt like their parents care, showed lower levels of sexual activity across all age groups in the study age 13— In contrast, those with higher levels of body pride, showed higher levels of sexual activity. Males who are in a committed relationship have a restricted sociosexual orientation , and will have different sexual strategies compared to males who have an unrestricted sociosexual orientation.
Males with a restricted sociosexual orientation will be less willing to have sex outside of their committed relationship and adjust their strategies according to their desire for commitment and emotional closeness with their partner. Sociosexually restricted males are less likely to approach females who have lower waist-to-hip ratios 0. Elizabeth Cashdan  proposed that mate strategies among both genders differ depending on how much parental investment is expected of the male, and provided research support for her hypotheses.
When men expect to provide a high level of parental investment, they will attempt to attract women by emphasising their ability to invest. In addition, men who expect to invest will be more likely to highlight their chastity and fidelity than men who expect not to invest. Men with the expectation of low parental investment will flaunt their sexuality to women.
Cashdan argues the fact the research supports the idea that men expecting to invest emphasise their chastity and fidelity, which is a high cost strategy because it lowers reproductive opportunities , suggests that that type of behaviour must be beneficial, or the behaviour would not have been selected. In order for a male's sexual strategy to pass on his genes to succeed with a female, it is the male who must compromise his own sexual strategies.
Women have higher levels of parental investment because they carry the developing child, and higher confidence in their maternity since they witness giving birth to the child. Hence women have reason to accept greater responsibility for raising their children. By comparison, males have no objective way of being certain that the child they are raising is biologically theirs. Because of this difference, males have to adapt their own sexual strategies to accommodate the strategies of the females around them.
Among other behaviors, this means that men are more likely to favour chastity in a woman, as this way a male can be more certain that her offspring are his own. Such a strategy is seen in males, and maternity is never doubted by the female, and so a chaste male is not highly valued by women.
Far more men than women commit rape. Sexual orientation refers to one's relative attraction to men, to women, or to both. Most researchers studying sexual orientation focus on patterns of attraction rather than behavior or identity, because culture affects the expression of behavior or identity and it is attraction that motivates behavior and identity, not the other way around.
Aside from being heterosexual or homosexual , individuals can be any of varying degrees of bisexual. Sexual orientation can be measured via self-report or physiologically.
Multiple physiological methods exist, including measurement of penile erection, viewing time, fMRI , and pupil dilation. In men, these all show a high degree of correlation with self-report measures,  including men who self report as "mostly straight" or "mostly gay.
Although no causal theory has yet gained widespread support, there is considerably more evidence supporting nonsocial causes of sexual orientation than social ones, especially for males. This evidence includes the cross-cultural correlation of homosexuality and childhood gender nonconformity , moderate genetic influences found in twin studies , evidence for prenatal hormonal effects on brain organization, the fraternal birth order effect, and the finding that in rare cases where infant males were raised as girls due to physical deformity, they nevertheless turned out attracted to females.
Hypothesized social causes are supported by only weak evidence, distorted by numerous confounding factors. Cultures that are very tolerant of homosexuality do not have significantly higher rates of it. Homosexual behavior is relatively common among boys in British single-sex boarding schools, but adult Britons who attended such schools are no more likely to engage in homosexual behavior than those who did not.
In an extreme case, the Sambia ritually require their boys to engage in homosexual behavior during adolescence before they have any access to females, yet most of these boys become heterosexual. It is not fully understood why the genes for homosexuality, or allowing it to develop, whatever they may be, persist in the gene pool. One hypothesis involves kin selection , suggesting that homosexuals invest heavily enough in their relatives to offset the cost of not reproducing as much directly.
This has not been supported by studies in Western cultures, but several studies in Samoa have found some support for this hypothesis. Another hypothesis involves sexually antagonistic genes, which cause homosexuality when expressed in males but increase reproduction when expressed in females.
Studies in both Western and non-Western cultures have found support for this hypothesis. Due to its existence in diverse cultures and through history, some researchers have argued that homosexual behavior has an adaptive function related to same-sex affiliation or alliance formation. Frank Muscarella argued that homoeroticism serves an indirect adaptive purpose, though this disposition would vary genetically among individuals.
Kirkpatrick similarly argued that homosexual behavior may be a type of reciprocal altruism or resource exchange, facilitating same-sex alliance formation, and that sexualization of these alliances occurs more often when competition for partners is especially severe. These relationships may have brought many benefits to the younger males, such as access to food, protection from aggression, greater status, and access to females.
They point to the historical record for support, including examples such as pederasty in ancient Greece. Evolutionary psychologist David Buss criticized the alliance hypothesis, arguing it faces several empirical difficulties.
He states that there is no evidence that most young men in most cultures use homoerotic behavior to establish alliances; instead, the norm is for same-sex alliances to not be accompanied by any sexual activity.
Additionally, he states that there is no evidence that men who engage in homoerotic behavior do better than other men at forming alliances or ascending in status. Criticism from other researchers has been on various grounds.
What impact same-sex sexuality has upon one's social identity varies across cultures. The question of precisely how cultures through history conceptualized homosexual desire and behavior is a matter of some debate. In much of the modern world, sexual identity is defined based on the sex of one's partner. In some parts of the world, however, sexuality is often socially defined based on sexual roles, whether one is a penetrator or is penetrated.
Category:LGBT culture. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Feelings and behaviors. For sexuality of non-human male animals, see Animal sexual behavior.
This section may be confusing or unclear to readers. Please help us clarify the section. There might be a discussion about this on the talk page. August Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Causes of sexual violence. Main article: Sexual orientation. Main article: Biology and sexual orientation. Marc; Vilain, Eric; Epprecht, Marc Psychological Science in the Public Interest. The Evolution of Desire second ed. New York: Basic Books. Geoffrey Miller".
Retrieved 15 July Evolution and Human Behavior. Archives of Sexual Behavior. Marlowe Human Nature. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Van den Berge and Frost examined preferences for lighter versus darker skin color using 51 cultures from the Human Relations Area Files. Ethnic and Racial Studies. This shift led to increased cooperation between the men's liberation and gay liberation movements developing, in part, because masculinity was understood as a social construct and in response to the universalization of "men" in previous men's movements.
Men's-rights activists worked to stop second-wave feminists from influencing the gay-rights movement, promoting hypermasculinity as inherent to gay sexuality. Masculinity has played an important role in lesbian culture,  although lesbians vary widely in the degree to which they express masculinity and femininity.
In LGBT cultures, masculine women are often referred to as " butch ". Traditional avenues for men to gain honor were providing for their families and exercising leadership. From this perspective, in every social system there is a dominant hegemonic and idealised form of masculinity and an apotheosised form of femininity that is considered as proper for men and women.
This idealised form of masculinity hegemonic masculinity legitimates and normalises certain performances of men, and pathologises, marginalises, and subordinates any other expressions of masculinities or femininities masculine and feminine subject positions. Alongside hegemonic masculinity, Connell postulated that there are other forms of masculinities marginalised and subordinated , which according to the findings of a plethora of studies are constructed in oppressive ways Thorne This is symptomatic of the fact that hegemonic masculinity is relational, which means that it is constructed in relation to and against an Other emphasised femininity, marginalised and subordinated masculinities.
Researchers have argued that the "precariousness" of manhood contributes to traditionally-masculine behavior. In many cultures, boys endure painful initiation rituals to become men. Manhood may also be lost, as when a man is derided for not "being a man". Researchers have found that men respond to threats to their manhood by engaging in stereotypically-masculine behaviors and beliefs, such as supporting hierarchy, espousing homophobic beliefs, supporting aggression and choosing physical tasks over intellectual ones.
In , Winegard and Geary wrote that the precariousness of manhood involves social status prestige or dominance , and manhood may be more or less precarious due to the avenues men have for achieving status. Although often ignored in discussions of masculinity, women can also express masculine traits and behaviors. Although female masculinity is often associated with lesbianism , expressing masculinity is not necessarily related to a woman's sexuality.
In feminist philosophy , female masculinity is often characterized as a type of gender performance which challenges traditional masculinity and male dominance. Kramer argues that the discussion of masculinity should be opened up "to include constructions of masculinity that uniquely affect women. Women who participate in sports, especially male-dominated sports, are sometimes derided as being masculine. Even though most sports emphasize stereotypically masculine qualities, such as strength, competition, and aggression, women who participate in sports are still expected to conform to strictly feminine gender norms.
Although traditional gender norms are gradually changing, female athletes, especially those that participate in male-dominated sports such as boxing, weight lifting, American football, ice hockey, and motor sports, are still often viewed as deviating from the boundaries of femininity and may suffer repercussions such as discrimination or mistreatment from administrators, harassment by fans, and decreased media attention.
Evidence points to the negative impact of hegemonic masculinity on men's health-related behavior, with American men making Twenty-five percent of men aged 45 to 60 do not have a personal physician, increasing their risk of death from heart disease. Men between 25 and 65 are four times more likely to die from cardiovascular disease than women, and are more likely to be diagnosed with a terminal illness because of their reluctance to see a doctor.
Reasons cited for not seeing a physician include fear, denial, embarrassment, a dislike of situations out of their control and the belief that visiting a doctor is not worth the time or cost. Studies of men in North America and Europe show that men who consume alcoholic drinks often do so in order to fulfill certain social expectations of manliness.
While the causes of drinking and alcoholism are complex and varied, gender roles and social expectations have a strong influence encouraging men to drink.
In , Arran Stibbe published an analysis of a well-known men's-health magazine in According to Stibbe, although the magazine ostensibly focused on health it also promoted traditional masculine behaviors such as excessive consumption of convenience foods and meat, alcohol consumption and unsafe sex.
Research on beer-commercial content by Lance Strate  yielded results relevant to a study of masculinity. Commercials often focus on situations in which a man overcomes an obstacle in a group, working or playing hard construction or farm workers or cowboys. Those involving play have central themes of mastery of nature or each other , risk and adventure: fishing, camping, playing sports or socializing in bars. There is usually an element of danger and a focus on movement and speed watching fast cars or driving fast.
The bar is a setting for the measurement of masculinity in skills such as billiards , strength, and drinking ability. Study of the history of masculinity emerged during the s, aided by the fields of women's and later gender history. This void was questioned during the late s, when women's history began to analyze gender and women to deepen the female experience. According to Scott, gender should be used in two ways: productive and produced.
Productive gender examined its role in creating power relationships, and produced gender explored the use and change of gender throughout history.
This has influenced the field of masculinity, as seen in Pierre Bourdieu's definition of masculinity: produced by society and culture, and reproduced in daily life. Connell wrote that these initial works were marked by a "high level of generality" in "broad surveys of cultural norms". The scholarship was aware of contemporary societal changes aiming to understand and evolve or liberate the male role in response to feminism. Two concerns over the study of the history of masculinity are that it would stabilize the historical process rather than change it and that a cultural overemphasis on the approach to masculinity lacks the reality of actual experience.
According to John Tosh, masculinity has become a conceptual framework used by historians to enhance their cultural explorations instead of a specialty in its own right. According to Tosh, the culture of masculinity has outlived its usefulness because it cannot fulfill the initial aim of this history to discover how manhood was conditioned and experienced and he urged "questions of behaviour and agency". Stefan Dudink believes that the methodological approach trying to categorize masculinity as a phenomenon undermined its historiographic development.
The importance he places on public history hearkens back to the initial aims of gender history, which sought to use history to enlighten and change the present. Tosh appeals to historians to live up to the "social expectation" of their work,  which would also require a greater focus on subjectivity and masculinity.
In a study of the Low Countries , Dudink proposes moving beyond the history of masculinity by embedding analysis into the exploration of nation and nationalism making masculinity a lens through which to view conflict and nation-building. Media images of boys and young men may lead to the persistence of harmful concepts of masculinity. According to men's-rights activists, the media does not address men's-rights issues and men are often portrayed negatively in advertising.
According to a paper submitted by Tracy Tylka to the American Psychological Association , "Instead of seeing a decrease in objectification of women in society, there has just been an increase in the objectification of both sexes. And you can see that in the media today. Research in the United Kingdom found, "Younger men and women who read fitness and fashion magazines could be psychologically harmed by the images of perfect female and male physiques. In January , the American Psychological Association warns that conforming to traditional standards of masculinity can cause harm to mental health.
In Eisler and Skidmore studied masculinity, creating the idea of "masculine stress" and finding three elements of masculinity which often result in emotional stress:. Because of social norms and pressures associated with masculinity, men with spinal-cord injuries must adapt their self-identity to the losses associated with such injuries; this may "lead to feelings of decreased physical and sexual prowess with lowered self-esteem and a loss of male identity.
Feelings of guilt and overall loss of control are also experienced. Brett Martin and Juergen Gnoth found that although feminine men privately preferred feminine models, they expressed a preference for traditional masculine models in public; according to the authors, this reflected social pressure on men to endorse traditional masculine norms. In their book Raising Cain: Protecting The Emotional Life of Boys , Dan Kindlon and Michael Thompson wrote that although all boys are born loving and empathic, exposure to gender socialization the tough male ideal and hypermasculinity limits their ability to function as emotionally-healthy adults.
According to Kindlon and Thompson, boys lack the ability to understand and express emotions productively because of the stress imposed by masculine gender roles. Cover goes over issues such as sexual assault and how it can be partially explained by a hypermasculinity.
A theory of "masculinity in crisis" has emerged;   Australian archeologist Peter McAllister said, "I have a strong feeling that masculinity is in crisis. Men are really searching for a role in modern society; the things we used to do aren't in much demand anymore". Deindustrialization and the replacement of smokestack industries by technology have allowed more women to enter the labor force, reducing its emphasis on physical strength.
The crisis has also been attributed to the questioning of male dominance and rights granted to men solely on the basis of sex following the feminist movement. According to John Beynon, masculinity and men are often conflated and it is unclear whether masculinity, men or both are in crisis. He writes that the "crisis" is not a recent phenomenon, illustrating several periods of masculine crisis throughout history some predating the women's movement and post-industrial society , suggesting that due to masculinity's fluid nature "crisis is constitutive of masculinity itself".
In , the word "herbivore men" became popular in Japan and was reported worldwide. Herbivore men refers to young Japanese men who naturally detach themselves from masculinity. Masahiro Morioka characterizes them as men 1 having gentle nature, 2 not bound by manliness, 3 not aggressive when it comes to romance, 4 viewing women as equals, and 5 hating emotional pain.
Herbivore men are severely criticized by men who love masculinity. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 30 November This article may be unbalanced towards certain viewpoints. Please improve the article by adding information on neglected viewpoints, or discuss the issue on the talk page.
October For other uses, see Masculine disambiguation. For the book by Harvey Mansfield, see Manliness book. Set of qualities, characteristics or roles associated with boys and men. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. Main article: Nature versus nurture. Main article: Hegemonic masculinity. This section may be confusing or unclear to readers. Please help us clarify the section. There might be a discussion about this on the talk page.
October Learn how and when to remove this template message. See also: Toxic masculinity. This section needs additional citations to secondary or tertiary sources such as review articles, monographs, or textbooks. Please add such references to provide context and establish the relevance of any primary research articles cited. Unsourced or poorly sourced material may be challenged and removed. November Learn how and when to remove this template message.
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