The Sex Pheromone Content of The Spodoptera Exigua (Hubner) Under The Pherolist. oesteonline.info accessed on July, In a third trial, six nonelectric trap designs were evaluated for trapping male tobacco budworm moths and cabbage looper moths, Trichoplusia ni (Hubner), using. The Journal of Clinical Investigation, , – Metivier, R., Stark, A., Flouriot, G., Hubner, M. R., Brand, H., Penot, G., Manu, D., Denger, S., Reid, G., Kos.
The Sex Pheromone Content of The Spodoptera Exigua (Hubner) Under The Pherolist. oesteonline.info accessed on July, armigera (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) sex attractant pheromone dispensers]. Se ha comparado el efecto sobre niveles y evolucion de capturas de. The Journal of Clinical Investigation, , – Metivier, R., Stark, A., Flouriot, G., Hubner, M. R., Brand, H., Penot, G., Manu, D., Denger, S., Reid, G., Kos.
The Journal of Clinical Investigation, , – Metivier, R., Stark, A., Flouriot, G., Hubner, M. R., Brand, H., Penot, G., Manu, D., Denger, S., Reid, G., Kos. Sex pheromone was collected by gland extraction or trapping of volatiles SeGoogle Scholar. Beevor, P. S. . (Z)Hexadecenal: a minor component of the female sex pheromone of Heliothis armigera (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). The Sex Pheromone Content of The Spodoptera Exigua (Hubner) Under The Pherolist. oesteonline.info accessed on July,
Journal of Chemical Ecology. The female sex pheromone of the Asian com borer, Ostrinia furnacaliswidespread in Taiwan, was confirmed as Z tetradecenyl acetate and its geometric isomer E tetradecenyl acetate in hubhe ratio of ca.
Males were attracted by the mixture of these two synthetic components in the field, but the attractiveness was less than by virgin females. The presence of minor components in the sex pheromone was therefore suggested. Unable to display preview.
Download preview PDF. Skip to main content. Advertisement Hide. Sex pheromone components from asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis Hubner Lepidoptera: Pyralidae in Taiwan. This is a preview of subscription sse, log hubne to check access. Ando, T. Hubne - and E Tetradecenyl hubhe Sex pheromone hune of oriental corn borer Lepidoptera: Pyralidae. Google Hubne. European corn borer: Pheromone polymorphism or sibling species.
Science sexem Carroll, K. Classification of lipid. Cheng, Z. Sex hubne components isolated sexem China corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalisGuenee Lepidoptera: PyralidaeE - and Z tetradecenyl acetates. Jiang, Z. Study on using of sex pheromone for the identification of corn sexem.
Acta Entomol. Kennedy, G. European corn borer hubne in North Carolina with various sex pheromone component blends. Klun, J. Insect sex pheromones: Intraspecific pheromonal variability of Ostrinia hubne in North America and Europe. Iowa European corn borer sex pheromones: Isolation and identification of four C 14 esters, J.
Ss pheromone of the Asian corn borer moth. Life Sci. Kochansky, J. Mutuura, A. Taxonomy and distribution of the European corn borer sexem allied species: Genus Ostrinia Lepidoptera: Pyralidae. Naoai, T. Electroantennogram responses of the European com borer, Ostrinia nubilalis hubne, to Z - and E tetradecenyl hubne. Insect Physiol. Ren, Sexem. The electroantennogram responses of the Asiatic corn borer, Ostrinia ssxem to its sex pheromone components. Sexem, R. Role of Z - and E sexem acetate pheromone components in the sexual behavior of the strain of the S corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Lepidoptera: Pyralidae.
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After about 10 minutes, when the animals were salivating, they were killed by injecting 10 ml of air into the marginal ear vein. The sciatic nerve was cut on its emergence from the spinal cord, and its two main branches, the peroneal and tibial nerves, cut just before entering the foot. The nerves were homogenized in 4 ml of 0.
The homogenate was extracted with 20 volumes of acetone; after centrifugation, the acetone was blown off with a stream of nitrogen. When standard solutions of acetyl- choline were carried through the acetone ex- traction, recoveries of acetylcholine, as meas- ured on the ileum of the guinea pig and the rectus abdominis muscle of the frog, ranged from 76 to 92 percent.
The muscle chamber contained 5 ml of solu- tion. Each liter of the Tyrode's solution used in the experiments on the frog rectus ab- dominis contained 6. The female sex pheromone of the Asian com borer, Ostrinia furnacalis , widespread in Taiwan, was confirmed as Z tetradecenyl acetate and its geometric isomer E tetradecenyl acetate in a ratio of ca. Males were attracted by the mixture of these two synthetic components in the field, but the attractiveness was less than by virgin females.
The presence of minor components in the sex pheromone was therefore suggested. Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF. Skip to main content. Advertisement Hide. Sex pheromone components from asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis Hubner Lepidoptera: Pyralidae in Taiwan.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Ando, T. Z - and E Tetradecenyl acetates: Sex pheromone components of oriental corn borer Lepidoptera: Pyralidae. Google Scholar. European corn borer: Pheromone polymorphism or sibling species. Science — The graphs illustrate variation in spike amplitude ratio both within and between groups.
Notably, not all E parent strain sensilla contained large amplitude OSNs responding to the E isomer, and not all Z-strain sensilla contained large amplitude OSNs responding to the Z isomer; there is an overlap in the distribution of responses of the two strains..
Additional file 1 shows a similar distribution when single sensilla are compared irrespective of individual. This shows that the variation was consistent across individuals. Statistical tests of sensillar variation not shown also produced similar results to the per individual tests described below. Sample responses of pheromone sensitive sensilla for parent and F 1 hybrids of O. Traces are scaled to 1.
Bars at the base of all traces show the location of the 0. Left traces show response to the E pheromone isomer and right traces show response to the Z. Average single sensillum amplitude ratios for all individuals in each O. A Populations are ordered according to predicted genotype assuming sex linkage of the peripheral amplitude trait Table 1.
B Individuals are arranged from lowest to highest average ratio for each strain or cross. Individuals above 0 have a higher average amplitude response to the E isomer while individuals below 0 have a higher average response to Z. When spike amplitude ratios were compared per individual, several differences among the crosses could be found Table 1.
These backcrosses were not significantly different from the parent E-strain 1. Finally, the ExZE 9 backcross was not different from any parent or F 1 hybrid group. We now examine the patterns of significant differences between the numbered crosses in Table 1 and Figure 2 in light of the genetic models. This prediction does not depend on the degree of dominance of the A E allele. This prediction also does not depend on the degree of dominance of the A E allele. Thus, five out of six predictions of the autosomal model can be rejected with our data.
These sex-linked predictions are also independent of the degree of dominance of the X E allele. None of these comparisons are significantly different as shown by Table 1 and Figure 2 , and thus we cannot reject these predictions of the sex-linked model.
In most cases where the autosomal model fails, the sex-linked model gives a better qualitative prediction Figure 2 , Additional file 2.
Cross type 9 has the same predicted genotype configuration under both models, and is inconsistent with both models due to a lower score placing it closer than expected to the ZZ homozygote.
Thus, except for one cross 9 that is inconsistent with both models, the sex-linked model more accurately predicts the rank order of different cross types than the autosomal model. The model of a sex-linked locus for average sensillar response ratios fits our data better than the single autosomal codominant gene model found by earlier studies [ 11 ]. These distributions have extensive overlap but different means. The mean of heterozygotes is closer to that of X E X E homozygotes, indicating partial dominance of the X E allele on this particular phenotype.
Average amplitude ratio histograms for O. Frequency distributions of average sensillum amplitude ratios combined from crosses shown in Figure 2. Note the different x-axis scale in histograms F and G.
In addition to the 10 strains and crosses obtained from European locations, a small subset of bivoltine E- BE and univoltine Z- UZ strains of ECB were obtained from American colonies to compare pheromone response profiles between continents. These tests were also performed to control for any conflicting results with previous studies that used only American strains. We recorded from a total of 66 sensilla from 15 bivoltine E X univoltine Z males.
Again, the graphs show a variety of response ratios both within and between groups. Average single sensillum amplitude ratios for individuals in each O. Individuals from European top and American bottom origin crosses are arranged from lowest to highest average ratio for each group as in Figure 2. The results of this study confirm that the two pheromone strains of O.
The E-strain possessed a significantly higher proportion of sensilla in which the large amplitude OSN responded to their major component, E tetradecenyl acetate, and a smaller, co-localized cell responded to the Z isomer. Conversely, the Z-strain possessed a significantly higher proportion of sensilla in which the large amplitude OSN responded to their major component, Z tetradecenyl acetate, and a smaller cell responded to the E isomer.
However, the antennal responses of hybrid offspring contrasted sharply with previous studies [ 11 , 14 ]. The current study found that reciprocal F 1 hybrids between the two strains possessed large amplitude OSNs responding to E tetradecenyl acetate, and smaller OSNs responding to the Z isomer, similar to the E parent strain. Conversely, the EZxZ backcross possessed sensilla with large amplitude cells responding to the Z isomer. The results of this study do not match the patterns expected for autosomal inheritance Table 1.
Rather, the current results suggest that peripheral olfactory response i. If one assumes sex-linked partial E-dominance, then F 1 hybrid individuals containing heterozygous alleles from both strains should be more similar to the E-strain. Additionally, all female-informative backcrosses should be more similar to the E-strain, except for an EZxZ cross shown in Table 1 , which contains homozygous sex-linked alleles from the Z-strain, and will resemble the Z parents.
This pattern is precisely what is shown in Table 1 and Figures 2 and 3. Although these results contrast with prior electrophysiological analyses [ 11 , 14 ], they provide a key to resolving some standing conflicts between behavioral and physiological studies.
Namely, the behavioral response to pheromone blends in ECB has been shown to be sex-linked [ 14 ], but previous studies found that autosomally-controlled peripheral response did not correspond to behavior [ 13 ], or pheromone production [ 15 ].
Current results show that peripheral response can also be affected by variation in a gene or genes on the sex chromosome, which matches the sex-linkage found for behavior in previous studies we did not directly measure male behavioral response in our crosses. Additionally, electrophysiological recordings from single antennal lobe neurons showed a prevalence of E-isomer responsive cells in both E-strain and F 1 hybrids, and more Z-responsive cells in Z-strain and EZxZ backcross individuals [ 20 ].
A report published in this volume also shows that glomerular innervation of projection neurons corresponds to E-dominant sex linkage [ 22 ]. These central studies match the peripheral results here. Perhaps the most significant dilemma is why current results differ from previous genetic and physiological studies of the Corn Borer antenna. Present results are, in fact, largely coherent with previous studies in terms of overall differences between E- and Z-strain amplitudes.
However, we find differences in amplitude among F 1 hybrids and backcrosses that were previously unobserved. Initially, it was proposed that differences could be due to the strains used. In previous studies, American strains of O.
In this study, moths were of European origin, from Hungary and Slovenia. Nevertheless, a comparison of the two populations Figure 3 , show no significant differences in amplitude ratio.
However, previous studies also differ in aspects of data sampling, variability, and averaging of several responses per individual. The first study [ 11 ] revealed discrete, non-overlapping distributions that were assigned to three phenotypes, which we have combined in Figure 3G. These values are a subset of the entire variability exhibited by those crosses as some sensilla were assigned to a phenotype by visual inspection of the spikes rather than on the basis of recordings.
In both of these studies, only a single sensillum was recorded per individual. Thus, the biological variation within phenotypic classes may have been under-represented by the sampling techniques employed. However, the differences between phenotypic classes were very great and the assignment to classes was probably not affected by the data sampling methods used.
A principal reason for discrepancies with previous results may be that microscopy, electronic and computing equipment have developed considerably in the past 20 years, and thus allow for much finer delineation of spike heights than the original study [ 11 ], particularly among F 1 hybrids. Additionally, previous studies of ECB have all utilized the "cut tip" technique [ 23 , 24 ], where single sensilla are cut at the distal tip, and exposed OSN dendrites are contacted by covering the cut hair with a saline-filled glass electrode.
In this study, a finely sharpened tungsten electrode was used to penetrate the base of each sensillum and record the activity of OSNs contained therein. With the tungsten recording technique, OSN activity is recorded much closer to the source of action potential generation, the cell body, and may measure more subtle differences in spike amplitude than the apical cut tip technique. Morphological analyses found that OSN dendrites tapered distally [ 12 ], which could make differences in diameter and amplitude more difficult to discern near the tip of the sensillum.
Morphological studies also showed that although dendrite diameters were more similar in F 1 hybrids, a difference in diameter could still be observed [ 12 ], although differences in amplitude could not be measured. Ostrinia is also notoriously difficult for peripheral electrophysiology studies. Even so, Hansson et al. This previous study noted a mismatch between antennal physiology and behavior in F 2 hybrids from an original Z-strain female and E-strain male cross. In that study, each male was first tested in a flight tunnel bioassay and classified as an E-responder, a hybrid-responder, or non-responder a fourth class responding to both E and Z was omitted from the analysis.
Each male was subsequently subjected to electrophysiological analysis using the cut-sensillum technique and classified as E-type, I-type, or Z-type based on relative spike amplitudes in response to antennal stimulation by the two pheromone components.
The main conclusion of the authors was that all three antennal types were found in each of the three response types, suggesting that a male's behavioral response in the flight tunnel was independent of whether he carried an E-type, I-type, or Z-type antenna [ 13 ]. Combining all of the data reported on spike ratios in the F 2 study [ 13 ] results in the histogram depicted in Figure 3F.
The ratios range over the same magnitudes as in the earlier study [ 11 ], but discrete phenotypic classes are no longer recognizable. The authors therefore used two cutoff points based on the previous study and their own measurements of Z, E, and hybrid F 1 populations to assign F 2 males to Z, E, or I hybrid types. Under autosomal inheritance, the physiology of the F 2 males should exhibit a ratio between Z, hybrid, and E-type males.
The authors could find no obvious explanation for this deviation, but the large excess of E types could be explained by a second, sex-linked locus with a dominant E-strain allele. Under this hypothesis, because of the direction of the cross, half of the F 2 males would be homozygous X E X E for the E-strain allele, which shifts the autosomal gene distribution to the right and produces an E-type antenna in all but the leftmost A Z A Z individuals. The other half of the F 2 progeny would carry one Z-strain and one E-strain allele at the sex-linked locus X Z X E , producing a much smaller rightward shift.
Among these heterozygotes, the genotype at the autosomal locus would determine antennal type in the expected ratio. Summing these two groups of males produces a expected ratio overall. The overall distribution of the F 2 population in Figure 3F resembles a superposition of the variation due to the sex-linked gene in Figure 3A and 3B on to the variation due to the autosomal gene in Figure 3G. Thus, the inheritance of antennal type in these F 2 crosses cannot be explained by the classical model of a single autosomal locus, but instead requires a strong bias towards E-expression that could be provided by a second, sex-linked locus segregating in the males.
Under this hypothesis, the partial dominance of the sex-linked E allele is epistatic to the autosomal locus in determining the antennal type, which is a type of cross-locus dominance effect.
An additional possibility to explain the different magnitudes of sex-linked control on sensillar response in the different studies could be variable penetrance of a sex-linked locus. We cannot formally exclude this hypothesis with the data at hand, but it could be tested if genetic markers linked to the autosomal gene segregating in the earlier studies 11, 14 and sex-linked markers linked to the resp locus were both followed in the same set of crosses. So far, the former gene has not yet been localized on the genetic map along with pher and resp The source for this proposed epistatic effect could relate to the nature of the peripheral response.
In the phenotype for spike amplitude response, there are two factors at play.