Male homosexuality in modern japan pdf

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pdf. Male Colors: The Construction of Homosexuality in Tokugawa Japan . Tokugawamen" were 42 Early Modern Japan Volume 6 Number 1 "bisexual" (p. Male Homosexuality in Modern Japan: Cultural Myths and Social Realities uality in Modern Japan is far from a queer theoretical reading of Japanese texts. Summary. This book is the first to look at the wide range of contrasting images of the gay male body in Japanese popular culture, both mainstream and gay, and.

in Japan will be examined, to again compare and contrast it to boys love. History of male homosexual relationships in Japan and the modern boys love genre. Retrieved from oesteonline.info​pdf. Summary. This book is the first to look at the wide range of contrasting images of the gay male body in Japanese popular culture, both mainstream and gay, and. Download Citation | Male Homosexuality in Early Modern Japan: The State of the Scholarship | Serious historical study of same-sex relationships came of age in.

pdf. Male Colors: The Construction of Homosexuality in Tokugawa Japan . Tokugawamen" were 42 Early Modern Japan Volume 6 Number 1 "bisexual" (p. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) rights in Japan are relatively progressive by Asian Modern Japanese terms for LGBT people include dōseiaisha (同性愛者, literally . Gay and bisexual men are allowed to donate blood in Japan following a 6-month . Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 November McLelland, M. J.. (). Male homosexuality in modern Japan: cultural myths and social realities. (Thesis). University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong.






Records of men japan have sex with men in Japan date back to ancient times. Western scholars have identified these as evidence of homosexuality in Japan. Though these relations male existed in Japan for millennia, they became most apparent to scholars during the Modern or Edo period.

This term was pdf used to japan to some kind of male to homosexuality sex in a pre-modern era of Japan. During male Meiji period nanshoku started to become discouraged due modern the rise of sexology within Japan and the process of westernization. A variety male obscure literary references to same-sex love exist in ancient sources, but many of these are so subtle as to be unreliable; another consideration is that declarations of affection for friends of the same sex were common.

For example, in The Tale of Genjiwritten in the early 11th century, men are frequently moved by the beauty of youths. In one scene the hero is rejected by a lady and instead sleeps with her young brother: "Genji pulled the boy down beside him Genji, for his part, or so one is informed, found the boy more attractive than his chilly sister". The Tale of Genji is a novel, but there are several Heian-era diaries that contain references to homosexual acts. Some of these contain references to Emperors involved in homosexual relationships with "handsome boys retained for sexual purposes".

Nanshoku relationships inside monasteries were typically pederastic : an age-structured relationship where the younger partner is not considered an adult. Both parties were encouraged to treat the relationship seriously and conduct the affair honorably, and the modern might be required to write a formal vow of fidelity.

Outside of the monasteries, monks were considered to have a particular predilection for male prostitutes, which was the subject of much ribald humor. There is no evidence so far of religious opposition to homosexuality within Japan in non-Buddhist traditions. During the Tokugawa period, some of the Shinto gods, especially HomosexualityMyoshin, Shinmei and Tenjin"came to be seen as guardian deities of nanshoku " male—male love.

Tokugawa-era writer Ihara Saikaku joked that since there japan no women for the first three generations in the genealogy of the gods found in the Nihon Shokithe gods must have enjoyed homosexual relationships—which Saikaku argued was the real origin of nanshoku. According to Furukawa, the relationship was based on the model of a male older nenja, paired with a typically younger chigo.

Although sex between the couple was expected to end when the boy came of age, the relationship would, ideally, develop into a lifelong bond of friendship. Male prostitutes kagemawho were often passed off as apprentice kabuki actors male catered to a mixed male and female clientele, did a healthy trade into the midth century despite increasing restrictions.

Many such prostitutes, as well as many young kabuki actors, were indentured servants sold as children to the brothel or theater, typically on a ten-year contract. Relations between merchants and boys hired as shop staff or housekeepers were common enough, at least in the popular imagination, to be the subject of erotic stories and popular jokes. Young kabuki actors often worked as prostitutes off-stage, and were homosexuality in much the same way as modern media stars are today, being much sought after by wealthy pdf, who would vie with each other to purchase the Kabuki actors favors.

These activities were pdf subject of countless homosexuality works, most of which have yet to be translated. However, English translations are available for Ihara Saikaku who created a bisexual main character in The Life of An Amorous ManJippensha Ikku who created an initial gay relationship in the post-publication "Preface" to Shank's Mare et seqand Ueda Akinari who had a homosexual Buddhist monk in Tales of Moonlight and Rain Likewise, many of greatest artists of the period, such as Hokusai and Hiroshigeprided themselves in documenting such modern in their prints, known as ukiyo-e "pictures of the floating world", and where they had an erotic tone, shunga "pictures of spring.

Men and male youths there are examples of both who were purely homosexual might be called "woman-haters" onna-girai ; this term, however, carried the connotation of aggressive distaste of women in all social contexts, rather than simply a preference for male sexual partners. Not all exclusively homosexual men pdf referred to with this terminology. In Male Colors by Leupp, he writes "In this brilliant, refined, and tolerant milieu, we have, not surprisingly, evidence of a self conscience sub-culture.

No other early society shows this phenomenon quite so clearly as seventeenth century Japan. Paul Gordon Schalow references these concepts in his introduction to the full English translation of The Great Mirror of Male Lovewriting, "interestingly, saikaku structured nanshoku okagami not around the "bisexual" ethos of the shojin-zuki, but around the exclusively "homosexual" ethos of the onna-girai.

In this same story, we see a character refer to himself and a friend as "woman-haters" in good humor. There were wakashu who would now be considered "homosexual," wakashu who would now be considered "bisexual," and wakashu who would now be considered "heterosexual," as well as many who could not be easily sorted into these categories. References to wakashu exclusively interested in men were pdf common, as in the example of the popular actor described in the story Winecup Overflowingwho was sent many love letters from women, but who, "ignored them modern, not out of cold heartedness, but because he was devoted to the way of male love.

Wakashu who felt this way could simply transition to homosexuality the "man" partner to a "boy," or, in some circumstances of varying social acceptabilitycontinue his life in the sociosexual role of homosexuality. There is also much evidence of young men who engaged in this behavior out of duty, rather than love, or lust. He was not interested in the idea of having a male lover homosexuality so, though only seventeen and in the flower of youth, has foolishly cut off his forelocks.

I found his perfuse apologies rather absurd but have decided to let the matter drop. Last night everyone came over and we spent the whole night laughing about it Another Tokugawa author, Eijima Kiseki, who references exclusive homosexuality, writes of a character in his The Characters of Worldly Young Men"who had never cared for women: all his life he remained unmarried, in the grip of intense passions for one handsome boy after another.

There is a genre of stories dedicated to debating the value of "male colors," "female colors," or the "following of both paths. Although these "ways of loving" were not considered incompatible, there were people and groups who advocated the exclusive following of one way, considered them spiritually at odds, or simply only personally experienced attractions in line with one of these "ways.

Traditional expressions of male to male sexual and romantic activity were between a man who had gone through with his coming of age ceremony, and a male youth who had not.

In his introduction to The Great Mirror of Male LoveSchallow writes, "a careful reading of nanshoku okagami makes modern that the constraint requiring that male homosexual relations be between an adult male and a wakashu was sometimes observed only pdf the form of fictive roleplaying.

Homosexuality Two Olds Cherry Treesthe protagonists are two men who have been in love since they were youths. The "man" in pdf relationship is sixty-six, and the "boy" in this relationship is sixty-three. If skill is what the audience is looking for, there should be no problem in having a 70 year old male as a youth in long sleeved robes. So long as he can continue to find patrons willing to spend the night with him, he can then enter the new year without pawning his belongings.

The protagonist of Saikaku's An Amorous Man hires the services of a "boy" who turns out to be ten years his senior, and finds himself disappointed. In the Ugetsu Monogatoriwritten by Ueda Akinarithe story Kikuka no chigiri is commonly believed to be about a romantic relationship between two adult men, where neither obviously holds the sociosexual role of wakashuthough they do structure it with their age difference in mind, using the "male love" terminology "older brother" versus "younger brother.

Mentions of modern who pdf enjoy both being the penetrating and penetrated partner are male found in these works, but are found in earlier Male personal diaries, like in the diary of Fujiwara Yoringa, who writes on wanting to perform both the penetrative, and the receptive, sexual role.

This is also referenced in a Muromachi era poem by the Shingon priest Socho This may indicate that the mores surrounding appropriate homosexual conduct for men had changed rapidly in the course of one-to-two centuries. As Japan progressed into the Meiji era, same-sex practices continued, taking on new forms.

However, there was a growing animosity towards same-sex practices. Despite the animosity, nanshoku continued, specifically the samurai version of nanshokuand it became the dominant expression of homosexuality during the Meiji period.

Nanshoku practices became associated with the Satsuma region of Japan. The reason being that this area was deeply steeped in the nanshoku samurai tradition of the Tokugawa period.

Also, when the satsuma oligarchs supported the restoration of power to the emperor, they were put into positions of power, allowing nanshoku practices to be brought japan into the spotlight during this time period. Satsuma also made up the majority of the newly created Japanese navy, thus associating the navy with nanshoku practices.

Though during this time Japan briefly adopted anti-sodomy laws in an attempt to modernize its code, the homosexuality were repealed when a French legalist, G. Boissonade, advised adopting a similar legal code to France's. Despite this, nanshoku flourished during the time of the Sino and Pdf wars. This was due to the association of the warrior code of the samurai with nationalism. This led to close association of the bushido samurai code, nationalism, and homosexuality.

After the Russo-Japanese war however, the practice of nanshoku began to die down, and it began to receive pushback. Eventually Japan began to shift away from its tolerance of homosexuality, moving towards a more hostile stance toward nanshoku. The Keikan code japan the notion of making sodomy illegal. This had the effect of criticizing an act of homosexuality without actually criticizing nanshoku male, which at the time japan associated with the samurai code and masculinity. The Keikan code came to be more apparent with the rise of groups of delinquent students that would engage pdf so called "chigo" battles.

These groups would go around assaulting other students and incorporate them into their group, often engaging in homosexual activity. Sexologya growing pseudo-science in Japan at the time, was also highly critical of homosexuality.

Originating from western thought, Sexology was then transferred to Japan by way of Meiji scholars, who were seeking to create a more Western Japan. Sexologists claimed that males engaging in a homosexual relationship would adopt feminine characteristics and would assume the psychic persona of a woman.

Sexologists claimed that homosexual would degenerate into japan in that the very body would come to resemble that of a woman, with regard to such features such as voice timbre, growth of body hair, hair and skin texture, muscular and skeletal structure, distribution of fatty japan, body odor pdf breast development.

Despite the recent trends that suggest a new level of tolerance, as well as open scenes in more cosmopolitan cities such as Tokyo and OsakaJapanese gay men and lesbian women often conceal their sexuality, with many even marrying persons of the opposite sex. Japan has no laws against homosexual activity and has some legal protections for gay individuals. In addition, there are some legal protections for transgender individuals. Consensual sex between adults of the same sex is legal, but some prefectures set the age of consent for same-sex sexual modern higher than for opposite-sex sexual activity.

While civil rights laws do not extend to protection from discrimination based on sexual orientation, some governments have enacted such laws.

The government of Tokyo has passed laws that ban discrimination in employment based on sexual identity. The major political parties express little public modern for LGBT rights. Despite recommendations from the Council for Human Rights Promotion, the National Diet has yet to take japan on including sexual orientation in the country's civil rights code. Some political figures, however, are beginning to speak publicly about they themselves being gay.

Kanako Otsujian assemblywoman from Osakacame out as a lesbian in Before that, inAya Kamikawa became the first openly homosexuality person elected official in Tokyo, Japan. He was modern also during his time previously as a ward councillor for Nakano.

While same-sex marriage is not legalized at the national level, the Shibuya District in Tokyo passed a same-sex partnership certificate bill in to "issue certificates to same-sex couples that recognize them as partners equivalent to those married under the law. A number of artists, nearly all male, have begun to speak publicly about being gay, appearing modern various talk shows and other programs, their celebrity often focused on their sexuality; twin pop-culture critics Piko and Osugi are an example.

Some entertainers have used stereotypical references to homosexuality to increase their profile. Masaki Sumitani a. Homosexuality Gay HGa comedian, shot to fame after he began to appear in public wearing a leather harness, japan pants, and cap. Ai Haruna japan Ayana Tsubakitwo high-profile transgender celebrities, have gained popularity and have been making the rounds on some very popular Japanese variety shows.

A greater number of gay and transgender characters have also begun appearing with positive portrayals on Japanese television, such as the highly successful Hanazakari no Kimitachi e and Last Friends television series.

In male same-sex relationships became further visible with the popular male drama What Did You Eat Yesterday? The gay magazine Adonis ja male the membership system was published in In twelve women became the first group of women in Japan to publicly identify as lesbians, publishing one issue of a magazine called Subarashi Onna Wonderful Women.

With the rise in visibility of the gay community and the attendant rise of media for gay audiences, the Hadaka Matsuri "Naked Festival" has become a fantasy scenario for gay videos. Gei-comi "gay-comics" are gay-romance themed comics aimed at gay men.

The Keikan code came to be more apparent with the rise of groups of delinquent students that would engage in so called "chigo" battles. These groups would go around assaulting other students and incorporate them into their group, often engaging in homosexual activity. Sexology , a growing pseudo-science in Japan at the time, was also highly critical of homosexuality.

Originating from western thought, Sexology was then transferred to Japan by way of Meiji scholars, who were seeking to create a more Western Japan. Sexologists claimed that males engaging in a homosexual relationship would adopt feminine characteristics and would assume the psychic persona of a woman.

Sexologists claimed that homosexual would degenerate into androgyny in that the very body would come to resemble that of a woman, with regard to such features such as voice timbre, growth of body hair, hair and skin texture, muscular and skeletal structure, distribution of fatty tissues, body odor and breast development.

Despite the recent trends that suggest a new level of tolerance, as well as open scenes in more cosmopolitan cities such as Tokyo and Osaka , Japanese gay men and lesbian women often conceal their sexuality, with many even marrying persons of the opposite sex. Japan has no laws against homosexual activity and has some legal protections for gay individuals.

In addition, there are some legal protections for transgender individuals. Consensual sex between adults of the same sex is legal, but some prefectures set the age of consent for same-sex sexual activity higher than for opposite-sex sexual activity. While civil rights laws do not extend to protection from discrimination based on sexual orientation, some governments have enacted such laws. The government of Tokyo has passed laws that ban discrimination in employment based on sexual identity.

The major political parties express little public support for LGBT rights. Despite recommendations from the Council for Human Rights Promotion, the National Diet has yet to take action on including sexual orientation in the country's civil rights code. Some political figures, however, are beginning to speak publicly about they themselves being gay. Kanako Otsuji , an assemblywoman from Osaka , came out as a lesbian in Before that, in , Aya Kamikawa became the first openly transgender person elected official in Tokyo, Japan.

He was out also during his time previously as a ward councillor for Nakano. While same-sex marriage is not legalized at the national level, the Shibuya District in Tokyo passed a same-sex partnership certificate bill in to "issue certificates to same-sex couples that recognize them as partners equivalent to those married under the law. A number of artists, nearly all male, have begun to speak publicly about being gay, appearing on various talk shows and other programs, their celebrity often focused on their sexuality; twin pop-culture critics Piko and Osugi are an example.

Some entertainers have used stereotypical references to homosexuality to increase their profile. Masaki Sumitani a. Hard Gay HG , a comedian, shot to fame after he began to appear in public wearing a leather harness, hot pants, and cap. Ai Haruna and Ayana Tsubaki , two high-profile transgender celebrities, have gained popularity and have been making the rounds on some very popular Japanese variety shows. A greater number of gay and transgender characters have also begun appearing with positive portrayals on Japanese television, such as the highly successful Hanazakari no Kimitachi e and Last Friends television series.

In male same-sex relationships became further visible with the popular adapated drama What Did You Eat Yesterday? The gay magazine Adonis ja of the membership system was published in In twelve women became the first group of women in Japan to publicly identify as lesbians, publishing one issue of a magazine called Subarashi Onna Wonderful Women.

With the rise in visibility of the gay community and the attendant rise of media for gay audiences, the Hadaka Matsuri "Naked Festival" has become a fantasy scenario for gay videos.

Gei-comi "gay-comics" are gay-romance themed comics aimed at gay men. While yaoi comics often assign one partner as a "uke", or feminized receiver, gei-comi generally depict both partners as masculine and in an equal relationship. Yaoi works are massive in number with much of the media created by women usually for female audiences. In the west, it has quickly caught on as one of the most sought-after forms of pornography. There is certainly no disparity between yaoi as a pornographic theme, vs Yuri.

Lesbian-romance themed anime and manga is known as yuri which means "lily". It is used to describe female-female relationships in material and is typically marketed towards straight people, homosexuals in general, or lesbians despite significant stylistic and thematic differences between works aimed at the different audiences.

There are a variety of yuri titles or titles that integrate yuri content aimed at women, such as Revolutionary Girl Utena , Oniisama e Comic Yuri Hime is a long-time running manga magazine in Japan that focuses solely on yuri stories, which gained merges from its other subsidiary comics and currently runs as the only Yuri Hime named magazine.

Other magazines and anthologies of Yuri that have emerged throughout the early 21st century are Mebae , Hirari , and Tsubomi the latter two ceased publication before From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Homosexuality in Japan. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Japan portal LGBT portal. Retrieved 8 April The Japan Times. Retrieved Edward G. Seidensticker trans.

University of California Press. Monumenta Nipponica. Sophia University. Cartographies of desire: male—male sexuality in Japanese discourse, — Stanford University Press. Paul Gordon Schalow trans. The Daily Yomiuri on Internet Archive. Archived from the original on Retrieved 8 April — via Japan Times Online. Archived from the original on 15 September News - Yahoo!

Inter-Asia Cultural Studies. McLelland, p. Academic Discourses. LGBT in Japan. Same-sex marriage in Japan. Homosexuality in Japan Sexual minorities in Japan. Book Category Asia portal. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender topics by region.

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Add to Wish List. Close Preview. Toggle navigation Additional Book Information. Description Reviews. Summary This book is the first to look at the wide range of contrasting images of the gay male body in Japanese popular culture, both mainstream and gay, and relate these images to the experience of an interview sample of Japanese gay men.

Reviews 'This new study by Mark McLellend is a sparkling gem. Request an e-inspection copy. Share this Title. Recommend to Librarian.