Roya faiq sex

Related Tags

Another soldier offered her freedom in exchange for sex. Rahmani, Zahra Nazari, Mohsen Zari, Roya Kaghazi, Ali Movahhed, Sara Eghbali, Security Act (ISA), including Shukry Omar Talib, Muhamad Faiq Hafidh. Results We derived sex- and sport-specific reference percentiles for the following Nasrollah; Khademi Bami, Maryam; Nikbakht, Roya; Karimi-Maleh, Hassan Shaikh, Faiq; Hendrata, Kenneth; Kolowitz, Brian; Awan, Omer; Shrestha. Islah) Faiq al-Sheikh Ali also called for measures to be taken sex, and height. According to the paintings by Roya Shahmo- hammadi.

Plants Used for Improvement of Sexual Performance and Virility,” BioMed Research Abu Bakar Abdul-Latiff, Farhani Ruslin, Hamdan Faiq, Mohd Salleh Hairul, Saeedeh Salimi, Farzaneh Farajian-Mashhadi, Roya Alavi‑Naini, Golbarg. However, other factors such as patient age, patient sex, US unit, patient Fujita​, Akifumi; Siegel, Cory; Ghafouri, Roya H; Traband, Anastasia; Sakai, Osamu Shaikh, Faiq; Hendrata, Kenneth; Kolowitz, Brian; Awan, Omer; Shrestha, Rasu;. Seven Tales of Sex and Death, Patricia Duncker Faiq Hasanov, Waylon Christian Terryn Roya Sands and the Bridge Between Worlds.

However, other factors such as patient age, patient sex, US unit, patient Fujita​, Akifumi; Siegel, Cory; Ghafouri, Roya H; Traband, Anastasia; Sakai, Osamu Shaikh, Faiq; Hendrata, Kenneth; Kolowitz, Brian; Awan, Omer; Shrestha, Rasu;. The four biopsy groups were well‐matched at entry with respect to age, sex, underlying liver disease, hemoglobin, prothrombin time, and platelet count. The use. Roya Mahboob - Wikipedia Roya Ayman Iit Lewis College Of Human Sciences · Farsana Roya Roya Feminist Sex Positive Comics Rescue - Wwac.

Pasar al contenido principal. Second harmonic generation microscopy as a powerful diagnostic imaging modality for human ovarian cancer Adur, Javier Fernando; Pelagati, Vitor B. Using a set of scoring methods alignment of collagen fibers, anisotropy, and correlationwe found significant differences in the distribution and organization of collagen fibers in faiq stroma component of serous, mucinous, endometrioid and mixed ovarian tumors as compared with normal ovary tissue.

This methodology was roy to differentiate between cancerous and healthy tissue, with clear cut distinction between normal, benign, roya, and malignant tumors of serous type. Our results indicated that the combination of different image-analysis approaches presented here represent a powerful tool to investigate collagen organization and extracellular matrix remodeling in ovarian tumors.

Contribution of proteomics for diving into the lactic acid bacteria role and the modification of the food matrix during fermentation Fadda, Silvina G. Fermentation and drying can be considered as the oldest ways to preserve raw materials extending the shelf-life as well as enhancing the flavour and aex qualities of the products.

Lactic acid bacteria LAB are the main agents responsible for fermentation, reducing the ripening time, minimizing manufacturing defects, improving sensory properties rya inhibiting the development of pathogenic and spoilage flora.

LAB is also considered as the most important microorganism responsible for the health-promoting effects of fermented foods, especially in milk-derived products.

Indeed, strains of some species have traditionally been used as probiotics and added as functional roya in various food sex [1]. Due to the huge economic significance of faiq application of LAB as starters, biopreservatives and probiotics, a research emphasis on their metabolism, genetic and applications has been placed in the last 25 years [2]. In this study, the bacteriocins produced by two Enterococcus strains Enterococcus mundtii CRL35 and Enterococcus faecium ST88Chisolated from cheeses, were characterized and tested for their capability to control growth of Listeria monocytogenes in experimentally contaminated fresh Minas cheese during refrigerated storage.

Both faiq were active against a variety of pathogenic and non-pathogenic microorganisms and bacteriocin absorption to various L. Growth of Faiq. In cheeses containing nisin This research underlines the potential application of E. It involves the activation of a photosensitizer PS with light of specific wavelength, which interacts with molecular oxygen to generate singlet oxygen and other reactive oxygen species ROS that lead to tumor cell death.

When a tumor is treated with PDT, in addition to affect cancer cells, the extracellular matrix and the other cellular components of the microenvironment are altered and finally this had effects on the roya cells survival. Furthermore, the heterogeneity in the availability of faiq and oxygen in the different regions of a tridimensional tumor has a strong impact on the sensitivity of cells to PDT.

In this review, we summarize how PDT affects indirectly to the tumor sex, by the alterations on the extracellular matrix, the cell adhesion and the effects over the immune response.

Also, we describe direct PDT effects on cancer cells, considering the intratumoral role that autophagy mediated by hypoxia-inducible factor 1 HIF-1 has on the efficiency of the treatment. In particular, there was an increase in the density of Flagellates. Our results suggest that the invading bivalves could significantly affect both the plankton density and assemblage structure in natural systems. Seaweeds contain functional proteins, and the enzymatic hydrolysis of these proteins has been shown to release bioactive peptides.

The aims of this study were to extract bioactive peptides and rya after enzymatic hydrolysis of the residual cake and to evaluate their ACE inhibitory and antioxidant capacities TEAC, DPPH, and copper-chelating sex. Residual cake hydrolysate has low molecular ryoa peptides containing Asp, Glu, Ala, and Leu.

Residual cake hydrolysate had higher protein solubility than residual cake. Hydrolysis could be used as a means to obtain ACE rlya and antioxidant compounds peptides and polyphenols from algae protein waste and add value to the phycocolloids extraction process.

We thus confirmed the good potential of invasive recombinant lactic acid bacteria as DNA delivery vector in vivo. The objective was to evaluate the effect of equine chorionic gonadotropin eCG and hCG post artificial insemination AI on fertility of lactating dairy cows. Pregnancy and progesterone were evaluated on Days 29 and Blood sampling and ultrasonography were roya between Days 22 and Pregnancy was evaluated on Days 36 and In conclusion, eCG at 22 days post insemination increased fertility, primarily in cows with low body condition and reduced pregnancy losses when given 7 days before faia hCG induced accessory CLs and slightly increased progesterone, but hCG given in the absence of a prior eCG treatment reduced fertility.

Benzyl 3-[ E - furanyl methylidene]methyldithiocarbazate Dey, Benu K. In the title compound, C14H14N2OS 2, the furan ring exhibits rotational disorder over two orientations, with an occupancy ratio of 0. The furan and phenyl rings form dihedral angles of 8.

The methyl group and the thione S atom are syn and the conformation about the imine bond is E. The higher temperatures in a city center in relation to peripheral areas, lead to the formation of an urban heat island. Therefore, working on the thermo-physical properties of materials roofs, floors and facades is a feasible mitigation strategy to reduce the temperature of a city. There are also intermediate options that result from the combined effect of the material composition, color and texture.

This situation shows that it faiq possible to mitigate the sexx island effect by using the appropriate selection of vertical cladding. Remarks on some scale worms Roya, Polynoidae from the Southwest Atlantic with notes on the genus Eucranta Malmgren,and description of a new Harmothoe species Barnich, Ruth; Orensanz, Jose Maria; Fiege, Dieter In a collection of polychaetes from the Southwest Atlantic, off the Argentinian coast, ten scale worm species of the family Polynoidae were found.

Additionally, a new Harmothoe species was discovered and is described in detail. Differentiating characters of the new species and Harmothoe ciliata Monro, from the Magellan faiq are discussed.

Since two species of Eucranta Srx, out of four known worldwide occur sex the Southwest Atlantic and since the genus has never been revised in the past, we discuss the seex characters of the species and present a synoptic table.

Furthermore, we raise two subspecies to species level, i. Eucranta villosa notialis Monro, to E. An identification key is roya to all species found in the considered area. Results indicate the development of different plant communities: middle-marsh halophytic vegetation between and 14C years BP, replaced by low-marsh brackish grasses between and 14C years BP in relation to sea-level highstand; a transitional high salt-marsh halophytic community, developed between and 14C years BP; and, brackish marsh vegetation and grasslands between and 14C years BP, with progressive decrease of estuarine conditions sex to sea-level fall and litoral ridge progradation.

Faiq results along with those from the south of the Samborombon Bay and Mar Chiquita coastal plain southeastern Buenos Aires province showed a similar vegetation in the region, characterized by low-marsh and coastal lagoon halophytic grasses, developed between and 14C years BP; and a local differentiation after 14C years BP related to the geomorphology roya each area: a brackish marsh vegetation in the Samborombon Bay, psammophytic communities at the south of the bay and middle salt-marsh halophytic communities in Mar Chiquita coastal plain.

These changes reveal the sensitive sex of vegetation from coastal sex to the sea-level fluctuations and geomorphologic evolution. Capturamos individuos de Scapteromys aquaticus, Akodon azarae, Oxymycterus rufus, Oligoryzomys flavescens, Deltamys kempi y O. The aim of this study was to rota the macro and microhabitat use and spatial variation in the abundance of small wild rodents that inhabit Otamendi Natural Reserve, Argentina.

We studied the rodent faia in 6 habitats: riparian seex, Celtis tala forest, lowland grassland, salt marsh and 2 highland grasslands. We captured a total of individual of Scapteromys aquaticus, Akodon azarae, Oxymycterus rufus, Oligoryzomys flavescens, Deltamys kempi and O. The species richness is maintained by the presence of different habitats that satisfy specific requirements from specialist and generalist species, using differentially the reserve and forming communities of different specific composition faiq each habitat.

A differential macrohabitat use was observed by all species, and a certain level of selectivity at microhabitat roya was observed in individuals of 2 species. This study shows that the diversity of environments in the Otamendi Natural Reserve, which allows the maintenance of many wild species of small rodents; confirming the high ecological and conservational value of the reserves inside an urban region.

The peptide hormone ghrelin acts in the central nervous sed as a potent orexigenic signal. Not only is ghrelin recognized as playing sex important role in feeding circuits traditionally thought of as affecting body weight homeostasis, but also an accumulating number of scientific studies have identified ghrelin as being a key regulator of reward-based, hedonic eating behaviors.

In the fakq article, we review ghrelin's orexigenic actions, the evidence linking ghrelin to food reward behavior, potential mechanisms by which ghrelin mediates reward-based eating behavior, and those studies suggesting an obligatory role for ghrelin in the changed eating behaviors induced by stress. The perimeter depends on the spatial resolution on rkya is determined.

Furthermore, we propose to relate Sb to SquareRoot Amaking these indexes invariant with roya to A and turning sex to make objective comparisons. The length of Sb was varied from a quarter to twentieth ofin three different basins. At these levels of length, the polygonal remove certain details but preserve the shape of the watershed. It has been proof a good fit in a lineal log-log relationship between the basic segment and the quantity of seg-ments in the perimeter, proving that the watershed border behave like a fractal object.

Furthermore, the roua of the Gravelius coefficient in function of the length of the basic segment was analyzed. In summary, these findings show that HTLV-2b is the major strain circulating in an urban sex of Argentina. La tortura en las Siete Partidas: la pena, la prueba y la majestad. Thus, in terms of its materiality, what will be presented here will be a comparison between specific titles of the works mentioned above which refer to the topic of torture.

This comparison will not be specially focused on textual equivalences —which are consciously overlooked by the drafters despite their perfect knowlage of the quotation systems— but on the ultimate significance that entails the introduction of these texts in the Castilian legislative framework and, specially, the return of torture as a conclusive proof.

In this regard, our objective will be to expound possible methods to deal with the goya of intertextuality in a world without authors. Estas transformaciones ocasionaron importantes cambios en el mercado de trabajo. The passage from a work-intensive industrialization based on the faoq of imports to a capital-intensive one, with predominance of the most efficient and larger companies, implied that both the agriculture activity and the manufacturing sector of the province lost importance.

Sincethe sugar industry developed its activity within a frame of growing deregulation policies, which resulted in a deep deterioration by the end of the 's, with the closure of 11 out of 27 sugar refineries. In arid and semi-arid regions, these processes present characteristic trends imposed by the prevailing physical conditions of the upper soil as evolved faiq water-limited climate. A set of plot-scale field experiments at the semi-arid Patagonian Monte Argentina were performed in order to estimate the effect of depression storage areas and infiltration rates on depths, velocities and friction of overland flows.

The micro-relief of undisturbed field plots was characterized at z-scale 1 mm through close-range stereo-photogrammetry and geo-statistical tools.

The overland flow areas produced by controlled water inflows were video-recorded and the flow velocities were measured with image processing software. Antecedent and post-inflow moisture were measured, eex texture, bulk density and physical properties of the upper soil were estimated based on soil core analyses.

Field data were used to calibrate a physically-based, mass balanced, time explicit model of infiltration and overland flows. Modelling results reproduced the time series of observed flow areas, velocities and infiltration depths. Estimates of hydrodynamic roya of overland flow Reynolds-Froude numbers are informed.

To our knowledge, the study here presented is novel in combining several aspects that previous studies do not address simultaneously: 1 overland flow and infiltration parameters were obtained in undisturbed field conditions; 2 field measurements of overland flow movement were coupled to a detailed analysis of soil microtopography at 1 mm depth scale; 3 the effect of depression storage areas in infiltration rates and depth-velocity friction of overland flows is addressed.

Relevance of the results to other similar rya areas is justified by the accompanying biogeography analysis of similarity of the environment where this study was performed with other desert areas of the world.

Prediction of objectively measured physical activity and sedentariness among blue-collar workers using survey questionnaires.

Workers also wore accelerometers for days measuring time spent sedentary and in physical activity, defined as non-sedentary time. Relations among behavioral and questionnaire measures of impulsivity in a sample of suicide attempters.

Despite the focus on impulsivity within suicide research, it remains unclear the extent to which impulsivity assessments, that purportedly tap similar constructs, show significant overlap in samples of individuals with suicidal behaviors. In a sample of 69 suicide attempters, we took a multitrait, multimethod approach to examine the relation among various questionnaire and behavioral assessments of impulsivity facets.

With the exception of urgency and go-stop performance, there was little evidence of concordance between questionnaire and behavioral measures. These findings suggest researchers cannot presume that measures of "impulsivity" assess similar psychological processes and that more nuanced terminology is needed. Ages and Stages Questionnaire used to measure cognitive deficit in children born extremely preterm. Full Text Available Abstract Background Several disease-specific questionnaires to measure pain and disability in patients with neck pain have been translated.

The objective of this study is to critically appraise the quality of the translation process, cross-cultural validation and the measurement properties of translated versions of neck-specific questionnaires. Methods Bibliographic databases were searched for articles concerning the translation or evaluation of the measurement properties of a translated version of a neck-specific questionnaire. The methodological quality of the selected studies and the results of the measurement properties were critically appraised and rated using the COSMIN checklist and criteria for measurement properties.

Results The search strategy resulted in a total of unique hits, of which 27 articles, evaluating 6 different questionnaires in 15 different languages, were included in this study. Generally the methodological quality of the translation process is poor and none of the included studies performed a cross-cultural adaptation.

A substantial amount of information regarding the measurement properties of translated versions of the different neck-specific questionnaires is lacking. Moreover, the evidence for the quality of measurement properties of the translated versions is mostly limited or assessed in studies of poor methodological quality. For all other languages we advise to translate the original version of the NDI.

Several disease-specific questionnaires to measure pain and disability in patients with neck pain have been translated. Bibliographic databases were searched for articles concerning the translation or evaluation of the measurement properties of a translated version of a neck-specific questionnaire.

The search strategy resulted in a total of unique hits, of which 27 articles, evaluating 6 different questionnaires in 15 different languages, were included in this study.

Background Several disease-specific questionnaires to measure pain and disability in patients with neck pain have been translated.

Validation of the historical adulthood physical activity questionnaire HAPAQ against objective measurements of physical activity. Full Text Available Abstract Background Lifetime physical activity energy expenditure PAEE is an important determinant of risk for many chronic diseases but remains challenging to measure. Previously reported historical physical activity PA questionnaires appear to be reliable, but their validity is less well established.

We recruited from a population-based cohort in Cambridgeshire, UK, Medical Research Council Ely Study in whom PA measurements , using individually calibrated heart rate monitoring, had been obtained in the past, once between and and once between and Historical PA within the domains of home, work, transport, sport and exercise was recalled using the questionnaire by asking closed questions repeated for several discrete time periods from the age of 20 years old to their current age.

The average PAEE from the 2 periods of objective measurements was compared to the self-reported data from the corresponding time periods in the questionnaire.

This instrument will be useful for ranking individuals according to their past PA in studies of chronic disease aetiology, where activity may be an important underlying factor contributing to disease pathogenesis.

Introduction of a new instrument to measure motivation for gaming: the electronic gaming motives questionnaire.

The GMQ-R was adapted to measure motivation for playing video games and the new instrument was tested on a sample of Norwegian conscripts selected randomly from the pool of conscripts who started their military service between and The questionnaire was administered to all those who had played video games during the last 6 months and consisted of gamers All participants completed the EGMQ, as well as other measures of gaming behaviour, gaming problems, boredom, loneliness and depression.

The confirmatory factor analyses showed that the proposed EGMQ measuring enhancement, coping, social and self-gratification motives displayed satisfactory fit and internal consistency. The four-dimensional Electronic Gaming Motives Questionnaire is a valid instrument for measuring motives for gaming. Design and validation of a questionnaire for measuring perceived risk of skin cancer. A perceived risk of cancer encourages preventive behavior while the lack of such a perception is a barrier to risk reduction.

There are no instruments in Spanish to measure this perceived risk and thus quantify response to interventions for preventing this disease at a population level. The aim of this study was to design and validate a self-administered questionnaire for measuring the perceived risk of skin cancer. A self-administered questionnaire with a visual Likert-type scale was designed based on the results of the analysis of the content of a survey performed in patients in the Dr.

Subsequently, the questionnaire was administered to a sample of adult patients who attended the clinic for the first time. As no gold standard exists for measuring the perceived risk of skin cancer, the construct was validated through factor analysis. The final questionnaire had 18 items. In the factor analysis, 4 factors denoted as affective, behavioral, severity, and susceptibility and an indicator of risk accounted for The psychometric properties of the scale were appropriate for measuring the perception of risk in adult patients aged 18 years or more who attended the dermatology clinic.

Cross-cultural adaptation and analysis of measurement properties. The selection of subgroup of patients that respond better to specific interventions is the top research priority in the field of back pain. The LSIQ is a tool able to stratify patients with low back pain who responds better to motor control exercises.

The original version of the LSIQ was translated and cross-culturally adapted. We collected data from patients with low back pain. In addition to LSIQ, we also collected information about physical activity levels measured by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire short version , disability measured by the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire , pain intensity measured by the Pain numerical Rating Scale , kinesiophobia measured by the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia , and depression measured by the Beck Depression Inventory.

The measurement properties tested were internal consistency, reproducibility reliability and agreement , construct validity, and ceiling and floor effects. We did not detect ceiling and floor effects. The Brazilian-Portuguese version of LIQ has adequate measurement properties and can be used in clinical practice and research.

Three studies evaluated psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the 9-item Acceptance and Action Questionnaire AAQ —a self-report measure designed to assess experiential avoidance as conceptualized inAcceptance and Commitment Therapy ACT.

Study 1, among bereaved adults, showed that a. This article reports on the development of a short questionnaire to measure work engagement--a positive work-related state of fulfillment that is characterized by vigor, dedication, and absorption. Sala, M. Participants were Italian and German undergraduate students. First, confirmatory factor analysis was used to test for the two-factor.

Banh, My K. This study applied a…. Memory Complaint Questionnaire performed poorly as screening tool : validation against psychometric tests and affective measures. Objective: This study examined the internal and external validity of the Memory Complaint Questionnaire MAC-Q , a brief measure of subjective memory complaint in people with normal cognitive function.

The Looming Maladaptive Style Questionnaire LMSQ is a self-report measure designed to assess the looming cognitive style, a tendency to interpret threats as rapidly approaching and increasing in magnitude. To date, no systematic evaluation on the psychometric properties of the LMSQ across diver A diary-item recording procedure was used to generate the initial pool.

Lifetime exposure to physical activity is an important construct for evaluating associations between physical activity and disease outcomes, given the long induction periods in many chronic diseases. The authors' objective in this study was to evaluate the measurement properties of the Lifetime Physical Activity Questionnaire L-PAQ , a novel Internet-based, self-administered instrument measuring lifetime physical activity, among Canadian men and women in — Reliability was examined u To validate the measure , we conducted a study with a total group of children aged between 7 and 13 years old.

Criterion validity was confirmed with a multitrait-multimethod analysis for which we introduced the children's self-assessment scores from the Big Five Questionnaire for Children. How Questionnaires and Multimedia Measurements collected in the U. In the last decade, the U. Questionnaire responses provide ancillar Electronic questionnaires for measuring parent satisfaction and as a basis for quality improvement.

Response rates are low and patients who cannot read the local language are usually excluded. To study whether computer-based continuous monitoring could elucidate reasons for parents being less satisfied with care and treatment and to compare parent satisfaction with the results of a study performed in Significant improvements in satisfaction had occurred as compared to a study from Full Text Available Sleep quality, circadian phase, and mood are highly interdependent processes.

Remarkably, there is currently no self-report questionnaire that measures all three of these clinically significant functions: The aim of this project was to address this deficit. In Study 1, participants completed a set of potential items was generated from existing questionnaires in each of the three domains and refined to follow a single presentation format. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify a parsimonious, three-factor latent structure.

Following item reduction, the optimal representation of sleep quality, circadian phase, and mood was captured by a questionnaire with three 5-item scales: Depressed Mood, Morningness, and Good Sleep. Confirmatory factor analysis found the three-scale structure provided adequate fit. In both samples, Morningness and Good Sleep were positively associated, and each was negatively associated with the Depressed Mood scale. Further research is now required to quantify the convergent and discriminant validity of its three face-valid and structurally replicated scales.

The new sleep, circadian rhythms, and mood SCRAM questionnaire is the first instrument to conjointly measure sleep quality, circadian phase, and mood processes, and has significant potential as a clinical tool. Siegrists concept of effort-reward imbalance ERI had been shown to be associated with a broad range of health impairments, in particular cardiovascular diseases and depression. The original questionnaire was designed to assess ERI in the field of occupational work.

This paper reports on a newly developed questionnaire for the assessment of ERI in household and family work. Analogous to the original version, it is divided into two components: i dysbalance of effort and reward extrinsic component , and ii over-commitment intrinsic components. Factor analyses have reproduced the two main dimensions "effort" and "reward". Relevant aspects of reward at home were i meaningfulness, ii social gratification, iii appreciation from the spouse, and iv affection for the child.

Finally a item questionnaire for assessing ERI in household and family work ERI-M and a four-item measure for measuring parental over-commitment Over-M are available. The psychometric properties of both instruments are good to satisfactory. Questionnaire survey report on measurement of radioactivity in working environment of radioisotopes facility.

To look over the current measurement of radioactivity concentration in working environment of many radioisotopes facilities, a questionnaire survey was carried out under the auspices of the Planning Committee of the Japan Society of Radiation Safety Management. The main results were obtained by aggregate analysis of the answers for questionnaires as the followings. Major nuclides subject to measurement were 3 H, 14 C, 32 P and I Sampling of radioisotopes in air was mainly performed using collectors like dust samplers and HC-collectors.

Almost all facilities is found to consider that the measurement of radioactivity concentration in working environments is not always necessary. Data were collected by a cross-sectional survey of patients who had advanced, life-limiting illnesses and their family caregivers, and who completed CANHELP, a global rating of satisfaction, and a quality of life questionnaire.

We conducted factor analysis, assessed internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha, and evaluated construct validity by describing the correlation amongst CANHELP, global rating of satisfaction and the quality of life questionnaire scores. There were patient and family questionnaires available for analysis. In the factor analysis, we identified six easily interpretable factors which explained Each subscale for each questionnaire had acceptable to excellent internal consistency Cronbach's alpha ranged from 0.

We observed good correlations between the CANHELP overall satisfaction score and global rating of satisfaction correlation coefficient 0. Measurement properties of depression questionnaires in patients with diabetes: a systematic review. To conduct a systematic review on measurement properties of questionnaires measuring depressive symptoms in adult patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes.

Full text, original articles, published in any language up to October were included. Eligibility for inclusion was independently assessed by three reviewers who worked in pairs. Quality of the questionnaires was rated per measurement property, based on the number and quality of the included studies and the reported results. Of unique hits, 21 studies met our criteria evaluating nine different questionnaires in multiple settings and languages. For the CES-D, there was strong evidence for good internal consistency, structural validity, and construct validity; moderate evidence for good criterion validity; and limited evidence for good cross-cultural validity.

However, the evidence for structural validity of the PHQ-9 was inconclusive. The WHO-5 was less extensively researched and originally not developed to measure depression. Currently, the CES-D is best supported for measuring depressive symptoms in diabetes patients.

Item wording and internal consistency of a measure of cohesion: the group environment questionnaire. A common practice for counteracting response acquiescence in psychological measures has been to employ both negatively and positively worded items.

However, previous research has highlighted that the reliability of measures can be affected by this practice Spector, The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect that the presence of negatively worded items has on the internal reliability of the Group Environment Questionnaire GEQ.

Results demonstrated that the revised questionnaire containing all positively worded items had significantly higher Cronbach alpha values for three of the four dimensions of the GEQ. Implications, alternatives, and future directions are discussed. The purpose of this project was to measure trauma nurse improvement in familiarity with emergency preparedness and disaster response core competencies as originally defined by the Emergency Preparedness Information Questionnaire after a focused educational program.

An adapted version of the Emergency Preparedness Information Questionnaire was utilized to measure familiarity of nurses with core competencies pertinent to first responder capabilities. This project utilized a pre- and postsurvey descriptive design and integrated education sessions into the preexisting, mandatory "Trauma Nurse Course" at large, level I trauma center.

A total of 63 nurses completed the intervention during May and September sessions. Overall, all 8 competencies demonstrated significant P Questionnaire development and validity to measure sexual intention among youth in Malaysia. Background From the Theory of Planned Behaviour perspective, sexual intention is determined by a permissive attitude, perception of social norms and perceived self-efficacy in performing sexual activity.

The aim of this study was to develop and validate the Youth Sexual Intention Questionnaire YSI-Q , which was designed to measure sexual intention among youths in Malaysia. Methods A total of 25 items were developed based on literature reviews encompassing four main constructs: sexual intenti Table 4.

Validation of the self regulation questionnaire as a measure of health in quality of life research. Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Several epidemiological studies address psychosomatic 'self regulation' as a measure of quality of life aspects. However, although widely used in studies with a focus on complementary cancer treatment, and recognized to be associated with better survival of cancer patients, it is unclear what the 'self regulation' questionnaire exactly measures.

Exploratory factor analysis indicated 2 sub-constructs: 1 Ability to change behaviour in order to reach goals, and 2 Achieve satisfaction and well-being. Conclusions The Self Regulation Questionnaire SRQ was found to be a valid and reliable tool which measures unique psychosomatic abilities.

Self regulation deals with competence and autonomy and can be regarded as a problem solving capacity in terms of an active adaptation to stressful situations to restore wellbeing. The tool is an interesting option to be used particularly in complementary medicine research with a focus on behavioural modification. The Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire PTQ : validation of a content-independent measure of repetitive negative thinking.

Repetitive negative thinking RNT has been found to be involved in the maintenance of several types of emotional problems and has therefore been suggested to be a transdiagnostic process. However, existing measures of RNT typically focus on a particular disorder-specific content. In this article, the preliminary validation of a content-independent self-report questionnaire of RNT is presented. Results of confirmatory factor analyses across samples supported a second-order model with one higher-order factor representing RNT in general and three lower-order factors representing 1 the core characteristics of RNT repetitiveness, intrusiveness, difficulties with disengagement , 2 perceived unproductiveness of RNT and 3 RNT capturing mental capacity.

High internal consistencies and high re-test reliability were found for the total scale and all three subscales. The validity of the Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire was supported by substantial correlations with existing measures of RNT and associations with symptom levels and clinical diagnoses of depression and anxiety.

Results suggest the usefulness of the new measure for research into RNT as a transdiagnostic process. Construction and updating of a public events questionnaire for repeated measures longitudinal studies. Full Text Available Impairments of retrospective memory and cases of retrograde amnesia are often seen in clinical settings. A measure of the proportion of memories retained over a specified time can be useful in clinical situations and public events questionnaires may be valuable in this respect.

However, consistency of retention of public events memory has rarely been studied in the same participants. In addition, when used in a research context, public events questionnaires require updating to ensure questions are of equivalent age with respect to when the test is taken. This paper describes an approach to constructing and updating a Public Events Questionnaire PEQ for use with a sample that is recruited and followed-up over a long time-period.

Internal consistency, parallel-form reliability, test-retest reliability and secondary validity analyses were examined for three versions of the PEQ that were updated every six months. Versions 2 and 3 of the questionnaire were reliable across and within versions and for recall and recognition.

Change over time was comparable across each version of the PEQ. These results show that PEQs can be regularly updated in a standardised fashion to allow use throughout studies with long recruitment periods. A reliable and valid questionnaire was developed to measure computer vision syndrome at the workplace. To design and validate a questionnaire to measure visual symptoms related to exposure to computers in the workplace.

Our computer vision syndrome questionnaire CVS-Q was based on a literature review and validated through discussion with experts and performance of a pretest, pilot test, and retest. Content validity was evaluated by occupational health, optometry, and ophthalmology experts. Rasch analysis was used in the psychometric evaluation of the questionnaire.

Criterion validity was determined by calculating the sensitivity and specificity, receiver operator characteristic curve, and cutoff point.

The CVS-Q was developed with wide consensus among experts and was well accepted by the target group. It assesses the frequency and intensity of 16 symptoms using a single rating scale symptom severity that fits the Rasch rating scale model well. The CVS-Q has acceptable psychometric properties, making it a valid and reliable tool to control the visual health of computer workers, and can potentially be used in clinical trials and outcome research.

The challenge facing investigators is to determine what change is significant, ie what is the minimal clinically important difference MCID. The CCQ was completed on Days 1—7 and For criterion referencing, health events during a period of 1 year after Day 42 were included in this analysis. Results patients were recruited, completed the CCQ questionnaire on Day Impairments of retrospective memory and cases of retrograde amnesia are often seen in clinical settings.

Internal consistency, parallel-form reliability, test-retest reliability, and secondary validity analyses were examined for three versions of the PEQ that were updated every 6 months. These results show that PEQs can be regularly updated in a standardized fashion to allow use throughout studies with long recruitment periods.

High workload of nurses in Intensive Care Units ICUs has been identified as a major patient safety and worker stress problem. However, relative little attention has been dedicated to the measurement of workload in healthcare. The objectives of this study are to describe and examine several methods to measure workload of ICU nurses.

We conducted secondary data analysis on data from two, multi-side, cross-sectional questionnaire studies to examine several instruments to measure ICU nurses' workload. Results show that the different methods to measure workload of ICU nurses, such as patient-based and operator-based workload, are only moderately correlated, or not correlated at all. Managers of hospitals and ICUs can benefit from the results of this research as it provides benchmark data on workload experienced by nurses in a variety of ICUs.

A factor analysis. To assess the dimensions of disability measured by the HIV Disability Questionnaire HDQ , a newly developed item self-administered questionnaire that describes the presence, severity and episodic nature of disability experienced by people living with HIV.

We conducted an exploratory factor analysis using disability severity scores to determine the domains of disability in the HDQ. The exploratory factor analysis suggested retaining six factors. Items related to symptoms and impairments loaded on three factors physical [20 items], cognitive [3 items], and mental and emotional health [11 items] and items related to worrying about the future, daily activities, and personal relationships loaded on three additional factors uncertainty [14 items], difficulties with day-to-day activities [9 items], social inclusion [12 items].

The HDQ has six domains: physical symptoms and impairments; cognitive symptoms and impairments; mental and emotional health symptoms and impairments; uncertainty; difficulties with day-to-day activities and challenges to social inclusion.

These domains establish the scoring structure for the dimensions of disability measured by the HDQ. Implications for Rehabilitation As individuals live longer and age with HIV, they may be living with the health-related consequences of HIV and concurrent health conditions, a concept that may be termed disability. Measuring disability is important. Several discrete emotions have broad theoretical and empirical importance, as shown by converging evidence from diverse areas of psychology, including facial displays, developmental behaviors, and neuroscience.

However, the measurement of these states has not progressed along with theory, such that when researchers measure subjectively experienced emotions, they commonly rely on scales assessing broad dimensions of affect positivity and negativity , rather than discrete emotions.

The current manuscript presents four studies that validate a new instrument, the Discrete Emotions Questionnaire DEQ , that is sensitive to eight distinct state emotions: anger, disgust, fear, anxiety, sadness, happiness, relaxation, and desire. Emotion theory supporting the importance of distinguishing these specific emotions is reviewed. Measurement invariance of the Portrait Values Questionnaire across 25 European countries.

The results suggest Hence, most direct comparisons of PVQ raw scores and sample statistics between European countries are valid without correction. Furthermore, it can be concluded that the ten values measured by the PVQ are invariant across European countries in terms of their relative position on the quasi Virtual reality sickness questionnaire VRSQ : Motion sickness measurement index in a virtual reality environment.

This study aims to develop a motion sickness measurement index in a virtual reality VR environment. The VR market is in an early stage of market formation and technological development, and thus, research on the side effects of VR devices such as simulator motion sickness is lacking. In this study, we used the simulator sickness questionnaire SSQ , which has been traditionally used for simulator motion sickness measurement.

To measure the motion sickness in a VR environment, 24 users performed target selection tasks using a VR device. The SSQ was administered immediately after each task, and the order of work was determined using the Latin square design.

In addition, the target selection method and button size were found to be significant factors that affect motion sickness in a VR environment. The results of this study are expected to be used for measuring and designing simulator sickness using VR devices in future studies.

Psychometric data of a questionnaire to measure cyberbullying bystander behavior and its behavioral determinants among adolescents. Full Text Available. This paper describes the items, scale validity and scale reliability of a self-report questionnaire that measures bystander behavior in cyberbullying incidents among adolescents, and its behavioral determinants. Determinants included behavioral intention, behavioral attitudes, moral disengagement attitudes, outcome expectations, self-efficacy, subjective norm and social skills.

Questions also assessed cyber-bullying involvement. Data and questionnaire are included in this article. Further information can be found in DeSmet et al. Translation of questionnaires measuring health related quality of life is not standardized. In relation to this and similar international cooperation, the validity and reliability of translated questionnaires are central aspects.

The psychometric properties of the translated versions were validated using different tests. The focus Self-administered physical activity questionnaires for the elderly: a systematic review of measurement properties.

To systematically review and appraise studies examining self-administered physical activity questionnaires PAQ for the elderly.

This article is one of a group of four articles in Sports Medicine on the content and measurement properties of PAQs. We excluded PA interviews, diaries and studies that evaluated the measurement properties of a self-administered PAQ in a specific population, such as patients. Many studies suffered from methodological flaws, e. The purpose of this study was to evaluate measurement properties of self-report questionnaires for studies published in Korean nursing journals. Of Korean nursing articles initially identified, articles met the inclusion criteria.

It consists of items on internal consistency, reliability, measurement error, content validity, construct validity including structural validity, hypothesis testing, cross-cultural validity, and criterion validity, and responsiveness. For each item of the COSMIN checklist, measurement properties are rated on a four-point scale: excellent, good, fair, and poor. Each measurement property is scored with worst score counts.

All articles used the classical test theory for measurement properties. Internal consistency A systematic review of measurement properties including interpretability of most instruments warrants further research and nursing-focused checklists assessing measurement properties should be developed to facilitate intervention outcomes across Korean studies. Reliability and validity of an internet-based questionnaire measuring lifetime physical activity. The authors' objective in this study was to evaluate the measurement properties of the Lifetime Physical Activity Questionnaire L-PAQ , a novel Internet-based, self-administered instrument measuring lifetime physical activity, among Canadian men and women in Reliability was examined using a test-retest study.

The L-PAQ demonstrated good reliability, with intraclass correlation coefficients ranging from 0. L-PAQ validity was further supported by observed relations between the L-PAQ and sociodemographic variables, consistent with a priori hypotheses. Overall, the L-PAQ is a useful instrument for assessing multiple domains of lifetime physical activity with acceptable reliability and validity. Development of a measure of the motives underlying the selection of food: the food choice questionnaire.

A number of factors are thought to influence people's dietary choices, including health, cost, convenience and taste, but there are no measures that address health-related and non-health-related factors in a systematic fashion.

This paper describes the development of a multidimensional measure of motives related to food choice. The Food Choice Questionnaire FCQ was developed through factor analysis of responses from a sample of adults ranging in age from 18 to 87 years. Nine factors emerged, and were labelled health, mood, convenience, sensory appeal, natural content, price, weight control, familiarity and ethical concern.

Convergent validity was investigated by testing associations between FCQ scales and measures of dietary restraint, eating style, the value of health, health locus of control and personality factors. Differences in motives for food choice associated with sex, age and income were found. The potential uses of this measure in health psychology and other areas are discussed. Construction of a questionnaire measuring outpatients' opinion of quality of hospital consultation departments.

Full Text Available Abstract Background Few questionnaires on outpatients' satisfaction with hospital exist. All have been constructed without giving enough room for the patient's point of view in the validation procedure. The main objective was to develop, according to psychometric standards, a self-administered generic outpatient questionnaire exploring opinion on quality of hospital care.

Method First, a qualitative phase was conducted to generate items and identify domains using critical analysis incident technique and literature review. A list of easily comprehensible non-redundant items was defined using Delphi technique and a pilot study on outpatients. This phase involved outpatients, patient association representatives and experts.

The second step was a quantitative validation phase comprised a multicenter study in 3 hospitals, 10 departments and outpatients. It was designed to select items, identify dimensions, measure reliability, internal and concurrent validity.

Patients were randomized according to the place of questionnaire completion hospital v. Results A item questionnaire comprising 4 subscales appointment making, reception facilities, waiting time and consultation with the doctor. Interscale correlations ranged from 0.

All Item-scale correlations were higher than 0. Test-retest intraclass coefficients ranged from 0. A unidimensional 9-item version was produced by selection of one third of the items within each subscale with the strongest loading on the principal component and the best item-scale correlation corrected for overlap. Factors related to satisfaction level independent from departments.

The adaptation included a conceptual and linguistic validation phase, as well as a phase for measuring the psychometric properties in 25 relatives [mean age, We measured conceptual and linguistic equivalence, internal reliability, construct validity and content validity. We assessed the applicability and administration load. The OAB-FIM was conceptually and linguistically equivalent to the original, maintaining its 6 domains: social, travel, worry, irritability, sleep and sex.

The interagreement correctly placed all items in their domain, except for number 10, which was placed more in worry than in irritability, motivates its reformulation. Some 2. The mean time for completing the questionnaire was 5.

The correlations with similar scales in the family were moderate-high 0. The questionnaire showed good internal consistency, content and construct validity and applicability.

Measuring engagement with music: development of an informant-report questionnaire. This study describes the development of the Music Engagement Questionnaire MusEQ , a item scale to measure engagement with music in daily life. Music has implications for well-being and for therapy, notably for individuals living with dementia. A number of excellent scales or questionnaires are now available to measure music engagement. Unlike these scales, the MusEQ may be completed by either the participant or an informant.

Study 1 drew on a community-based sample of participants. Exploratory factor analysis revealed six interpretable factors, which formed the basis for construction of six subscales. Both groups had an interview in which they described the place music had in their lives. These interviews were scored by three independent raters. The MusEQ showed excellent internal consistency. Five of the factor-derived subscales showed good or excellent internal consistency.

MusEQ scores were moderately correlated with a global rating of 'musicality' and with music education. There was strong agreement between self-report and informant-report data. MusEQ scores showed a significant positive relationship to independent ratings of music engagement.

The MusEQ provides a meaningful and reliable option for measuring music engagement among participants who are unable to complete a self-report questionnaire. The aim of the preliminary research was to construct a questionnaire to measure the concept of self-induced concatenated demotivation and the relations between its latent dimensions. The questionnaire to measure self-induced concatenated demotivation of employees has proved to be a low but satisfactory reliable measuring instrument for all three dimensions of the concept.

The lack of methodological rigor is frequent in most of instruments developed to assess the knowledge of teachers regarding Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ADHD.

A random sample of teachers from 57 schools in the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country and Navarre was used for the analysis of the psychometric properties of the instrument. Furthermore, evidence of convergent and external validity was obtained.

However, patients with visual impairment, such as uveitis, may struggle to complete questionnaires. The aim of this study was to validate a brief and simple measure of positive mindset in people with uveitis. MethodThis study was a cross-sectional survey of people with uveitis.

Health-related quality of life of food allergic patients measured with generic and disease-specific questionnaires. Flokstra-de Blok, B. Health-related quality of life HRQL has never been measured with both generic and disease-specific questionnaires in the same group of food allergic patients.

The aim of this study was to compare HRQL of food allergic patients as measured with generic and disease-specific questionnaires. Web-based health behavior change interventions may be more effective if they offer autonomy-supportive communication facilitating the internalization of motivation for health behavior change. Yet, at this moment no validated tools exist to assess user-perceived autonomy-support of such interventions. The aim of this study was to develop and validate the virtual climate care questionnaire VCCQ , a measure of perceived autonomy-support in a virtual care setting.

Items were developed based on existing questionnaires and expert consultation and were pretested among experts and target populations.

Item properties, structural validity, and reliability were examined with item-response and classical test theory methods, and convergent and divergent validity via correlations with relevant concepts. Only 15 items remained in the questionnaire in both studies, thus we proceeded to the analyses of the questionnaire 's reliability and construct validity with a item version of the virtual climate care questionnaire.

The virtual climate care questionnaire accurately assessed participants' perceived autonomy-support offered by two Web-based health behavior change interventions. Overall, the scale showed the expected properties. Health-related quality of life questionnaires in individuals with haemophilia: a systematic review of their measurement properties. The evaluation of health related quality of life HRQOL is essential for a full assessment of the influence of an illness on patients' lives.

The aim of this paper is to critically appraise and compare the measurement properties of HRQOL questionnaires studied in haemophilia. Articles were excluded that did not report HRQOL measurement properties, or when questionnaires were rated as 'positive', 'indeterminate' or 'negative', accompanied by levels of evidence. The search resulted in unique hits, of which 22 studies were included. None of the studies reported measurement error and responsiveness. Our findings suggest that there is no need for new disease-specific HRQOL questionnaires for haemophilia, but rather that additional research is necessary to document the measurement properties of the currently available questionnaires , specifically focusing on the structural validity, measurement error and responsiveness of these questionnaires.

Validity of a questionnaire measuring motives for choosing foods including sustainable concerns. Since the s, sustainability of diet has become an increasingly important concern for consumers. However, there is no validated multidimensional measurement of motivation in the choice of foods including a concern for sustainability currently available. In the present study, we developed a questionnaire that measures food choice motives during purchasing, and we tested its psychometric properties.

The questionnaire included items divided into four predefined dimensions environmental, health and well-being, economic and miscellaneous. Among responders, one-third found the questionnaire complex or too long, while one-quarter found it difficult to fill in. Its underlying structure was determined by exploratory factor analysis and then internally validated by confirmatory factor analysis. Reliability was also assessed by internal consistency of selected dimensions and test-retest repeatability.

After selecting the most relevant items, first-order analysis highlighted nine main dimensions: labeled ethics and environment, local and traditional production, taste, price, environmental limitations, health, convenience, innovation and absence of contaminants.

This study enabled precise identification of the various dimensions in food choice motives and proposed an original, internally valid tool applicable to large populations for assessing consumer food motivation during purchasing, particularly in terms of sustainability. Development and validation of a questionnaire to measure moral distress in community pharmacists. Background Pharmacists work within a highly-regulated occupational sphere, and are bound by strict legal frameworks and codes of professional conduct.

This regulatory environment creates the potential for moral distress to occur due to the limitations it places on acting in congruence with moral judgements. Very little research regarding this phenomenon has been undertaken in pharmacy: thus, prominent research gaps have arisen for the development of a robust tool to measure and quantify moral distress experienced in the profession.

Objective The aim of this study was to develop an instrument to measure moral distress in community pharmacists. Setting Community pharmacies in the United Kingdom. Method This study adopted a three-phase exploratory sequential mixed-method design. Three semi-structured focus groups were then conducted to allow pharmacists to identify and explore scenarios that cause moral distress. Each of the identified scenarios were developed into a statement, which was paired with twin seven-point Likert scales to measure the frequency and intensity of the distress, respectively.

Content validity, reliability, and construct validity were all tested, and the questionnaire was refined. Main outcome measure The successful development of the valid instrument for use in the United Kingdom. Results This research has led to the development of a valid and reliable instrument to measure moral distress in community pharmacists in the UK.

The questionnaire has already been distributed to a large sample of community pharmacists. Conclusion Results from this distribution will be used to inform the formulation of coping strategies for dealing with moral distress.

Measurement properties of the Human Activity Profile questionnaire in hospitalized patients. To test the measurement properties reproducibility, internal consistency, ceiling and floor effects, and construct validity of the Human Activity Profile HAP questionnaire in hospitalized patients. This measurement properties study recruited one-hundred patients hospitalized for less than 48h for clinical or surgical reasons. The HAP was administered at baseline and after 48h in a test-retest design.

Reliability was excellent with an ICC of 0. SEM was 1. Ceiling or floor effects were not observed. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. Psychometric properties of an innovative self-report measure : The Social Anxiety Questionnaire for adults. This article presents the psychometric properties of a new measure of social anxiety, the Social Anxiety Questionnaire for adults SAQ , composed of 30 items that were developed based on participants from 16 Latin American countries, Spain, and Portugal.

Two groups of participants were included in the study: a nonclinical group involving 18, persons and a clinical group comprising patients with a diagnosis of social anxiety disorder social phobia. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a 5-factor structure of the questionnaire. Psychometric evidence supported the internal consistency, convergent validity, and measurement invariance of the SAQ.

To facilitate clinical applications, a receiver operating characteristics ROC analysis identified cut scores for men and women for each factor and for the global score. Full Text Available Dispositional self-awareness is conceptualized in several different ways, including insight, reflection, rumination and mindfulness, with the latter in particular attracting extensive attention in recent research. While self-awareness is generally associated with positive psychological well-being, these different conceptualizations are also each associated with a range of unique outcomes.

This two part, mixed methods study aimed to advance understanding of dispositional self-awareness by developing a questionnaire to measure its outcomes.

In Study 1, expert focus groups categorized and extended an initial pool of potential items from previous research. In Study 2, these items were reduced to a 38 item self-report questionnaire with four factors representing three beneficial outcomes reflective self-development, acceptance and proactivity and one negative outcome costs. Regression of these outcomes against self-awareness measures revealed that self-reflection and insight predicted beneficial outcomes, rumination predicted reduced benefits and increased costs, and mindfulness predicted both increased proactivity and costs.

These studies help to refine the self-awareness concept by identifying the unique outcomes associated with the concepts of self-reflection, insight, reflection, rumination and mindfulness. It can be used in future studies to evaluate and develop awareness-raising techniques to maximize self-awareness benefits while minimizing related costs. Full Text Available Hypersensitivity to external sounds is often comorbid with tinnitus and may be significant for adherence to certain types of tinnitus management.

Therefore, a clear measure of sensitivity to sound is important. The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Hyperacusis Questionnaire HQ for use as a measurement tool using data from a sample of adults who took part in tinnitus research. We evaluated the HQ factor structure, internal consistency, convergent and discriminant validity, and floor and ceiling effects. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the original HQ three-factor solution and a one-factor solution were both a poor fit to the data.

Four problematic items were removed and exploratory factor analysis identified a two-factor attentional and social solution. The original three-factor structure of the HQ was not confirmed. All fourteen items do not accurately assess hypersensitivity to sound in a tinnitus population. We propose a item 2-factor version of the HQ, which will need to be confirmed using a new tinnitus and perhaps nontinnitus population.

Hypersensitivity to external sounds is often comorbid with tinnitus and may be significant for adherence to certain types of tinnitus management. Reliability of AOFAS diabetic foot questionnaire in Charcot arthropathy: stability, internal consistency, and measurable difference. The development of Charcot changes is known to be associated with a high rate of recurrent ulceration and amputation. Unfortunately, the effect of Charcot arthropathy on quality of life in diabetic patients has not been systematically studied because of a lack of a disease-specific instrument.

The purpose of this study was to develop and test an instrument to evaluate the health-related quality of life of diabetic foot disease.

Subjects diagnosed with Charcot arthropathy completed a patient self-administered questionnaire , and clinicians completed an accompanying observational survey. The patient self-administered questionnaire was organized into five general sections: demographics, general health, diabetes-related symptoms, comorbidities, and satisfaction.

The scales measured the effect in six health domains: 1 general health, 2 care, 3 worry, 4 sleep, 5 emotion, and 6 physicality. The psychometric properties of the scales were evaluated and the summary scores for the Short-Form Health Survey SF were compared to published norms for other major medical illnesses. Of the 89 enrolled patients, 57 who completed the questionnaire on enrollment returned a second completed form at 3-month followup.

Over the 3-month followup period most of the patients showed an improvement in the Eichenholtz staging. The internal consistency of most was moderate to high and, in general, the scale scores were stable over 3 months.

However, several of the scales suffered from low-ceiling or high-floor effects. Patients with Charcot arthropathy had a much lower physical component score on enrollment than the reported norms for other disease conditions, including diabetes. Quality of life represents an important set of outcomes when evaluating the effectiveness of treatment for patients with Charcot arthropathy.

This study represents an initial attempt to develop a standardized survey for use with this patient population. Further studies need to be done with larger groups of. Development of a multi-dimensional measure of resilience in adolescents: the Adolescent Resilience Questionnaire.

Full Text Available Abstract Background The concept of resilience has captured the imagination of researchers and policy makers over the past two decades. However, despite the ever growing body of resilience research, there is a paucity of relevant, comprehensive measurement tools. In this article, the development of a theoretically based, comprehensive multi-dimensional measure of resilience in adolescents is described.

Results Mean age of participants was 35 years. Average P latency was ms. Conclusion Maximum acceptable P latency values of Reference values for pulse oximetry at high altitude.

Physiological state was also noted during the examination. A significant difference was observed in SaO2 between children younger than 1 year compared with older children, although the difference was no longer demonstrable when sleeping children were excluded. Younger children were also shown to have a lower mean SaO2 than older children living at high altitude, which suggests physiological adaptation to high altitude over time.

In addition, sleep had a lowering effect on SaO2, although the clinical importance of this remains undetermined. Health-related physical fitness measures: reference values and reference equations for use in clinical practice. To provide reference values and reference equations for frequently used clinical field tests of health-related physical fitness for use in clinical practice.

Cross-sectional design. General community. Not applicable. The participants conducted 5 clinical field tests 6-minute walk test, stair test, second sit-to-stand test, handgrip test, fingertip-to-floor test. The results of the field tests showed that performance remained unchanged until approximately 50 years of age; after that, performance deteriorated with increasing age.

Sperm count. Do we need a new reference value? To evaluate the sperm count in fertile men, general population, and infertile men in different regions of the world.

Based on this analysis the normal sperm count is about 65 million per mL. Regional reference values of thyroid gland volume in Turkish Adults. It is important to know the size of the thyroid gland, and its normal value may vary among different geographic regions. In this study, we aimed to establish reference ranges for thyroid volume in euthyroid adults and to compare these results with the literature data. Between June and June , patients with normal laboratory results serum TSH, anti-TG, anti-TPO antibodies and urine iodine level that underwent thyroid gland ultrasound examination were retrospectively analyzed.

Two hundred and 92 patients were females and were males; the age range was years with mean age Length, breadth and thickness were measured, and the volume of each lobe was estimated using the ellipsoid formula.

The overall mean thyroid volume in all patients who were examined was The mean thyroid volume in females and males was We consider that further studies are necessary to establish national references thyroid volume for each country. Prospective study. University teaching hospital. Twenty-three clinically healthy cats between 1 and 15 years. For each cat, whole blood was collected via jugular or medial saphenous venipuncture, and blood was placed into a serum tube, a tube containing potassium-EDTA, and tubes containing 3.

In addition, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time, and fibrinogen concentration Clauss method were analyzed for each cat. It is possible that the observed high maximum lysis values were due to clot retraction rather than true clot lysis. Further studies will be required to test this hypothesis. Cats have a weaker clot in the FIBTEM test, but have a similar clot strength to human blood in the other ROTEM assays, which may be due to a stronger contribution of platelets compared to that found in people.

In cats, careful interpretation of the results to diagnose hyperfibrinolysis is advised, especially with the APTEM test, until further data are available. The use of reference change values in clinical laboratories. Most of these are performed for monitoring individuals in acute situations and for following up the improvement or deterioration of chronic diseases.

In our study, we aimed at evaluating the RCV calculation for 24 clinical chemistry analytes widely used in clinical laboratories and the utilization of this data. Four reference change values RCV were calculated for each analyte using four statistical probabilities 0. RCVs of these analytes were calculated as RCV could be available as a tool for making clinical decision, especially when monitoring individuals.

Radionuclides in haematology. This book contains the following chapters: Some prerequisites to the use of radionuclides in haematology ; Instrumentation and counting techniques; In vitro techniques; Cell labelling; Protein labelling; Autoradiography; Imaging and quantitative scanning; Whole body counting; Absorption and excretion studies; Blood volume studies; Plasma clearance studies; and Radionuclide blood cell survival studies.

To assess the utility of reference change values RCVs as delta check limits. A total of 1,, paired results for 23 general chemistry test results from June 1, , to October 31, , were analyzed. The RCVs for each analyte were calculated from the analytical imprecision and within-subject biological variation.

The percent differences between two consecutive results in one patient were categorized into one of four groups: outpatients, inpatients, emergency care, and general health care. For each, 2. The distributions were assessed for normality using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test.

Most of the estimated limits were larger than the corresponding RCVs and, furthermore, with notable differences across the groups. Patients in the emergency care group usually demonstrated larger delta percent values than those in the other groups. None of the distributions of the percent differences passed tests of normality when subjected to Kolmogorov-Smirnov analysis. Comparison of estimated RCVs and real-world patient data revealed the pitfalls of applying RCVs in clinical laboratories.

Laboratory managers should be aware of the limitations of RCVs and exercise caution when using them. For permissions, please e-mail: journals. Value assignment of nutrient concentrations in five standard reference materials and six reference materials. Most of these materials were originally value -assigned for their elemental composition major, minor, and trace elements , but no additional nutritional information was provided. Two of the materials were certified for selected organic constituents.

SRM Infant Formula was distributed as a quality control sample for the proximates and for analysis for individual fatty acids. Two of the materials Whole Egg Powder and Whole Milk Powder were distributed in an earlier interlaboratory comparison exercise in which they were analyzed for several vitamins. Value assignment of analyte concentrations in these 11 SRMs and RMs, based on analyses by the collaborating laboratories, is described in this paper.

They may also be used as "primary control materials" in the value assignment of in-house control materials of similar composition. The addition of proximate information for 10 existing reference materials means that RMs are now available from NIST with assigned values for proximates in 6 of the 9 sectors of. International reference reagents: antihuman globulin. International Society of Blood Transfusion. International Committee for Standardization in Haematology.

An international working party has conducted a study designed to select a suitable reference reagent for antihuman globulin, to replace those first made available in The chosen preparation contains levels of anti-IgG and anti-C3 anti-C3c and anti-C3d potency that are considered suitable to serve for reference when evaluating either polyspecific antihuman globulin reagents or those containing their separate monospecific components.

The reference material is available in 2-ml freeze-dried aliquots from seven assigned distribution centres. Meeting the nutrient reference values on a vegetarian diet. Surveys over the past 10 years have shown that Australians are increasingly consuming more plant-based vegetarian meals. Many studies demonstrate the health benefits of vegetarian diets. As with any type of eating plan, vegetarian diets must be well planned to ensure nutritional needs are being met.

This clinical focus project shows that well planned vegetarian diets can meet almost all the nutritional needs of children and adults of all ages. Haematological values in pregnant women in Port Harcourt, Nigeria II: Serum iron and transferrin, total and unsaturated iron binding capacity and some red cell and platelet indices. Previous studies on the normal values of serum iron, unsaturated iron binding capacity, total iron binding capacity, serum transferrin, percent transferrin saturation, red cell distribution width, and various platelet indices: Platelet count, mean platelet volume, platelet distribution width, plateletcrit and platelet larger cell ratio in pregnant subjects in Nigeria are relatively scanty.

Present study aims to determine the values of these parameters in apparently healthy pregnant subjects residing in Port Harcourt south eastern Nigeria; and help establish normal reference ranges of these parameters for the population under reference.

Cross sectional prospective study involving female subjects attending for the first time, the ante-natal clinics of a tertiary health care facility in Port Harcourt. Subjects were divided into 73, 75 and 72 subjects in the first, second and third trimester of pregnancy respectively. Serum iron and unsaturated iron binding capacity, red cell distribution width, platelet count and platelet distribution width were determined by automated methods; total iron binding capacity, serum transferrin concentrations, percent transferrin saturation, mean platelet volume and plateletcrit were calculated using appropriate formulas.

The values of serum iron, unsaturated iron binding capacity, total iron binding capacity and serum transferrin concentrations were found to show significant variations between the various trimesters of pregnancy. However, while serum iron showed significant decreases during pregnancy; unsaturated iron binding capacity, total iron binding capacity and serum transferrin concentrations were found to show significant increases during pregnancy amongst our subjects p values of red cell distribution width, platelet count, mean platelet volume, platelet distribution width, plateletcrit and platelet larger cell ratio did not show any significant differences at the different trimesters of pregnancy in.

Reference values of olfactory function for Mexico City inhabitants. Olfactory testing is useful in the differential diagnosis of age-related pathologies. To provide baseline reference values for clinical use in Mexico City we investigated the relation between olfactory capabilities and the principal population parameters of age, sex, and smoking habits in a large sample of healthy inhabitants.

We applied the internationally recognized and commercially available Sniffin' Sticks test battery to men and women from across the adult life span. The Sniffin' Sticks test evaluates three key aspects of olfactory function: 1 ability to detect an odor, 2 to discriminate between odors, and 3 to identify odors.

We found a significant decline in olfactory function from the 5th decade of age, and that detection threshold was the most sensitive measure of this. We did not find a significant difference between men and women or between smokers and non-smokers.

In confirmation of our previous studies of the negative effect of air pollution on olfactory function, Mexico City inhabitants had poorer overall performance than corresponding subjects previously tested in the neighboring but less polluted Mexican state of Tlaxcala. Although we basically confirm findings on general demographic patterns of olfactory performance from other countries, we also demonstrate the need to take into account local cultural, environmental and demographic factors in the clinical evaluation of olfactory performance of Mexico City inhabitants.

The Sniffin' Sticks test battery, with some adjustment of stimuli to correspond to Mexican culture, provides an easily administered means of assessing olfactory health. The core duties of the reference librarian inherently mandate that the work environment is not unlike a kaleidoscope: Students and faculty revolve within and around the library, and reference and public services workers do the same; every move temporarily redesigning the library, its collections, and even its very role on campus into something….

Altitude training causes haematological fluctuations with relevance for the Athlete Biological Passport. The impact of altitude training on haematological parameters and the Athlete Biological Passport ABP was evaluated in international-level elite athletes.

Haematological parameters were determined weekly three times before and four times after the training camps. In the control group, no values exceeded the individual ABP reference range. Training at altitude should be considered a confounding factor for ABP interpretation for up to four weeks after altitude exposure but does not consistently cause abnormal values in the ABP.

Reference values and equations reference of balance for children of 8 to 12 years. There are still no normative data in balance sway for school-age children in Brazil. We aimed to establish the reference ranges for balance scores and to develop prediction equations for estimation of balance scores in children aged 8 to 12 years old.

We used the Sensory Organization Test to assess the balance scores and both a digital scale and a stadiometer to measure the anthropometric variables. We tested a stepwise multiple-regression model with sex, height, weight, and mid-thigh circumference of the dominant leg as predictors of the balance score. Therefore, balance scores increase with age for boys and girls. This study described the ranges of age- and sex-specific normative values for balance scores in children during 6 different testing conditions established by the sensory organization test.

We confirmed that age was the predictor that best explained the variability in balance scores in children between 8 and 12 years old. This study stimulates a new and more comprehensive study to estimate balance scores from prediction equations for overall Brazilian pediatric population.

Relationship of blood corticosterone, immunoglobulin and haematological values in young crocodiles Crocodylus porosus to water temperature, clutch of origin and body weight.

To examine whether sub-optimal temperature induced stress and immunosuppression in farmed saltwater crocodile Crocodylus porosus hatchlings. A clinico-pathological study. A total of hatchlings were used. Body weight and length, plasma corticosterone and immunoglobulin concentrations and total and differential white blood cell counts were measured in hatchlings from five clutches divided between five water temperature treatment groups. Initially all groups were housed at 32 degrees C for 10 weeks, then two groups L, LC were changed to low temperature 28 degrees C and two groups H, HC to high temperature 36 degrees C , while one group C remained at 32 degrees C.

The LC and HC groups were maintained at these temperatures for 10 days, after which the water temperature of both groups was returned to 32 degrees C. Blood samples were collected twice at 6 and 9 weeks of age before the initial temperature change, and at 10 days and 4 weeks after the initial temperature change at Except for an increase in plasma corticosterone in the HC group and a decrease in the L group when the temperature change was first introduced, changes in plasma corticosterone were not significant.

There were no significant changes in immunoglobulin concentrations. There were, however, significant decreases in the total white cell and lymphocyte counts in the LC group after the temperature was decreased to 28 degrees C, and an increase in these counts after water temperature was returned to 32 degrees C. Clutch of origin had significant effects on body weight and length gains, and there were negative relationships between body weight and corticosterone concentrations and between body weight and immunoglobulin concentrations.

As haematological changes indicative of stress were not associated with significant changes in serum corticosterone, immunosuppression in young crocodiles may be independent of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal cortical axis. The present study aimed to update the prediction equations for spirometry and their lower limits of normal LLN by using the lambda, mu, sigma LMS method and to compare the outcomes with the values of previous spirometric reference equations.

Reference equations were derived using the LMS method which allows modeling skewness lambda [L] , mean mu [M] , and coefficient of variation sigma [S]. The outcome equations were compared with previous reference values. The new predicted values for spirometry and their LLN derived using the LMS method were shown to more accurately reflect transitions in pulmonary function in young adults than previous prediction equations derived using conventional regression analysis in There were partial discrepancies between the new reference values and the reference values from the Global Lung Function Initiative in Serial spirometry follow-up, together with correlations with other clinical findings, should be emphasized in evaluating the pulmonary function of individuals.

Future studies are needed to improve the accuracy of reference data and to develop continuous reference values for spirometry across all ages. To explore the relationship between serum creatinine Scr reference values in healthy adults and geographic factors and provide evidence for establishing Scr reference values in different regions.

We collected 29 Scr reference values from healthy adults measured by medical facilities from 23 provinces, 4 municipalities and 5 autonomous regions. We chose 23 geographical factors and analyzed their correlation with Scr reference values to identify the factors correlated significantly with Scr reference values.

According to the Principal component analysis and Ridge regression analysis, two predictive models were constructed and the optimal model was chosen after comparison of the two model's fitting degree of predicted results and measured results.

The distribution map of Scr reference values was drawn using the Kriging interpolation method. Seven geographic factors, including latitude, annual sunshine duration, annual average temperature, annual average relative humidity, annual precipitation, annual temperature range and topsoil silt cation exchange capacity were found to correlate significantly with Scr reference values.

The overall distribution of Scr reference values featured a pattern that the values were high in the south and low in the north, varying consistently with the latitude change. The data of the geographic factors in a given region allows the prediction of the Scr values in healthy adults.

Analysis of these geographical factors can facilitate the determination of the reference values specific to a region to improve the accuracy for clinical diagnoses. In contrast with the situation in some countries, that required adjustments in fortification policies in order to avoid excessive folic acid consumption, in Venezuela several studies show an elevated prevalence of deficiency. National evidence at this point is insufficient to establish the recommendation, and as in the review of the Venezuelan RDAs, the actual recommendations are based on the reported for the United States population.

The continuous evaluation of folic acid status is important to design adequate and efficient policies to control both, the deficiency and the excess of folic acid consumption.

Systematic review to support the development of nutrient reference intake values : challenges and solutions. Workshops sponsored by the Institute of Medicine IOM and the World Health Organization WHO suggested that incorporating systematic reviews into the process of updating nutrient reference values would enhance the transparency of the process.

Haematological manifestations of lupus. Our purpose was to compile information on the haematological manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus SLE , namely leucopenia, lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, autoimmune haemolytic anaemia AIHA , thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura TTP and myelofibrosis.

Hence, we have reviewed previous as well as most recent studies with the subject heading SLE in combination with each manifestation. Neutropenia can lead to morbidity and mortality from increased susceptibility to infection. Severe neutropenia can be successfully treated with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor.

While related to disease activity, there is no specific therapy for lymphopenia. Severe lymphopenia may require the use of prophylactic therapy to prevent select opportunistic infections. Isolated idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura maybe the first manifestation of SLE by months or even years. Some manifestations of lupus occur more frequently in association with low platelet count in these patients, for example, neuropsychiatric manifestation, haemolytic anaemia, the antiphospholipid syndrome and renal disease.

Thrombocytopenia can be regarded as an important prognostic indicator of survival in patients with SLE. Medical, surgical and biological treatment modalities are reviewed for this manifestation. First-line therapy remains glucocorticoids. Through our review, we conclude glucocorticoids do produce a response in majority of patients initially, but sustained response to therapy is unlikely.

Glucocorticoids are used as first-line therapy in patients with SLE with AIHA, but there is no conclusive evidence to guide second-line therapy. Rituximab is promising in refractory and non-responding AIHA. Reference values for 27 clinical chemistry tests in year-old males and females. Reference values are usually defined based on blood samples from healthy men or nonpregnant women in the age range of years.

These values are not optimal for elderly patients, as many biological markers change over time and adequate reference values are important for correct clinical decisions. We studied 27 frequently used laboratory tests. The 2. Reference values are reported for plasma alanine aminotransferase, albumin, alkaline phosphatase, pancreas amylase, apolipoprotein A1, apolipoprotein B, aspartate aminotransferase, bilirubin, calcium, chloride, cholesterol, creatinine, creatine kinase, C-reactive protein, glucose, gamma-glutamyltransferase, HDL-cholesterol, iron, lactate dehydrogenase, LDL-cholesterol, magnesium, phosphate, potassium, sodium, transferrin, triglycerides, urate and urea.

Reference values calculated from the whole population and a subpopulation without cardiovascular disease showed strong concordance. Karger AG, Basel. Validated age-specific reference values for CSF total protein levels in children. Reference values for CSF total protein levels were determined in an extensive cohort of diagnostic samples from children reference values were confirmed in children diagnosed with disorders unrelated to raised CSF total protein level and validated in children with GBS, ADEM and MS.

The test results of diagnostic CSF samples from children were used to define reference values. These reference values were confirmed in a subgroup of children diagnosed with disorders that are not typically associated with increased CSF total protein. In addition, the CSF total protein levels in these children in the first 6 months after birth were highly variable median 0. More accurate age-specific reference values for CSF total protein levels in children were determined.

Published by Elsevier Ltd. Kawakami, Ryoko; Sawada, Susumu S. We examined the associations between the CRF reference values and incidence of type 2 diabetes. Methods This prospective cohort study enrolled nondiabetic Japanese men aged 20 to 39 years at baseline.

CRF was measured using the cycle ergometer test, and maximal oxygen uptake was estimated. On the basis of the CRF reference value , participants were classified into 2 groups: those with values less than the reference value under-RV and those with values equal to or greater than reference value over-RV.

Results A total of participants developed type 2 diabetes during the 14 years of follow-up. In receiver operating characteristic analysis, the optimal CRF cut-off value for predicting incident type 2 diabetes was Conclusions The reference CRF value appears to be reasonably valid for prevention of type 2 diabetes, especially among Japanese men younger than 40 years.

Development of type 2 diabetes can be prevented by maintaining a CRF level above the reference value. Incorporating geographical factors with artificial neural networks to predict reference values of erythrocyte sedimentation rate. The measurement of the Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate ESR value is a standard procedure performed during a typical blood test. In order to formulate a unified standard of establishing reference ESR values , this paper presents a novel prediction model in which local normal ESR values and corresponding geographical factors are used to predict reference ESR values using multi-layer feed-forward artificial neural networks ANN.

Local normal ESR values were obtained from hospital data, while geographical factors that include altitude, sunshine hours, relative humidity, temperature and precipitation were obtained from the National Geographical Data Information Centre in China. The results show that predicted values are statistically in agreement with measured values. Model results exhibit significant agreement between training data and test data.

Consequently, the model is used to predict the unseen local reference ESR values. Reference ESR values can be established with geographical factors by using artificial intelligence techniques. ANN is an effective method for simulating and predicting reference ESR values because of its ability to model nonlinear and complex relationships.

Background The measurement of the Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate ESR value is a standard procedure performed during a typical blood test.

Methods and findings Local normal ESR values were obtained from hospital data, while geographical factors that include altitude, sunshine hours, relative humidity, temperature and precipitation were obtained from the National Geographical Data Information Centre in China. Conclusions Reference ESR values can be established with geographical factors by using artificial intelligence techniques.

Serum proteins by capillary zone electrophoresis: approaches to the definition of reference values. The Paragon CZE Beckman Analytical, Milan, Italy is an automatic dedicated capillary zone electrophoresis CZE system, producing a five-zone serum protein pattern with quantitative estimation of the zones. With the view of substituting this instrument for two previously used serum protein electrophoresis techniques, we planned to produce reference values for the "new" systems leading to compatible interpretation of the results.

High resolution cellulose acetate electrophoresis with visual inspection and descriptive reporting HR-CAE and five-zone cellulose acetate electrophoresis with densitometry CAE-D were the previously used techniques. The two sets of reference values thereby produced were in good agreement with each other and also with reference values previously reported for the CZE system.

Thus, reference values for the CZE techniques permit interpretation of results coherent with the previously used techniques and reporting modes. Statistical considerations for harmonization of the global multicenter study on reference values.

To achieve these objectives, it is crucial to harmonize 1 the protocol for recruitment and sampling, 2 statistical procedures for deriving the RI, and 3 test results through measurement of a panel of sera in common.

This policy may require secondary exclusion of individuals according to the standard of each country at the time of deriving RIs. An iterative optimization procedure, called the latent abnormal values exclusion LAVE method, can be applied to automate the process of refining the choice of reference individuals.

For global comparison of reference values , test results must be harmonized, based on the among-country, pair-wise linear relationships of test values for the panel. Traceability of reference values can be ensured based on values assigned indirectly to the panel through collaborative measurement of certified reference materials. The validity of the adopted strategies is discussed in this article, based on interim results obtained to date from five countries. Special considerations are made for dissociation of RIs by parametric and nonparametric methods and between-country difference in the effect of body mass index on reference values.

This document provides graphical arrays and tables of key information on the derivation of human inhalation health effect reference values for specific chemicals, allowing comparisons across durations, populations, and intended use.

A number of program offices within the Agency, A global multicenter study on reference values : 1. Assessment of methods for derivation and comparison of reference intervals. The IFCC Committee on Reference Intervals and Decision Limits coordinated a global multicenter study on reference values RVs to explore rational and harmonizable procedures for derivation of reference intervals RIs and investigate the feasibility of sharing RIs through evaluation of sources of variation of RVs on a global scale.

For the common protocol, rather lenient criteria for reference individuals were adopted to facilitate harmonized recruitment with planned use of the latent abnormal values exclusion LAVE method. As of July , 12 countries had completed their study with total recruitment of 13, healthy adults. A serum panel with assigned values was measured by all laboratories. RIs were derived by parametric and nonparametric methods. The effect of LAVE methods is prominent in analytes which reflect nutritional status, inflammation and muscular exertion, indicating that inappropriate results are frequent in any country.

The validity of the parametric method was confirmed by the presence of analyte-specific distribution patterns and successful Gaussian transformation using the modified Box-Cox formula in all countries. After successful alignment of RVs based on the panel test results, nearly half the analytes showed variable degrees of between-country differences.

This finding, however, requires confirmation after adjusting for BMI and other sources of variation. The results are reported in the second part of this paper. The collaborative study enabled us to evaluate rational methods for deriving RIs and comparing the RVs based on real-world datasets obtained in a harmonized manner. A systematic review of the angular values obtained by computerized photogrammetry in sagittal plane: a proposal for reference values.

Reference values for postural alignment in the coronal plane, as measured by computerized photogrammetry, have been established but not for the sagittal plane. The objective of this study is to propose reference values for angular measurements used for postural analysis in the sagittal plane for healthy adults. Another inclusion criterion was the presentation of, at least, one of the following measurements: head horizontal alignment, pelvic horizontal alignment, hip angle, vertical alignment of the body, thoracic kyphosis, and lumbar lordosis.

Angle samples of the selected articles were grouped 2 by 2 in relation to an overall average, which made possible total average, variance, and SD calculations. Six articles were included, and the following average angular values were found: None of the articles contained the measurements for thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis. The reference values can be adopted as reference for postural assessment in future researches if the same anatomical points are considered.

Published by Mosby, Inc. Reference values for 34 frequently used laboratory tests in year-old men and women. Reference values are usually based on blood samples from healthy individuals in the age range years. Most patients seeking health care are older than this reference population.

Many reference intervals are age dependent and there is thus a need to have appropriate reference intervals also for elderly individuals. The upper reference limit for creatinine and urea was significantly increased while the lower limit for iron and albumin was decreased in this elderly population in comparison with the population in the Nordic Reference Interval Project NORIP.

To analyze the relationship between the reference values of fibrinogen FIB in healthy Chinese adults and geographical factors to provide scientific evidences for establishing the uniform standard. The reference values of FIB of Chinese healthy adults from cities were collected to investigate their relationship with 18 geographical factors including spatial index, terrain index, climate index, and soil index.

Geographical factors that significantly correlated with the reference values were selected for constructing the BP neural network model. The spatial distribution map of the reference value of FIB of healthy Chinese adults was fitted by disjunctive kriging interpolation.

We used the 5-layer neural network and selected times of training covering 11 hidden layers to build the simulation rule for simulating the relationship between FIB and geographical environmental factors using the MATLAB software. The artificial neural networks were created to analyze the simulation of the selected indicators of geographical factors. The spatial distribution map of the reference values of FIB in healthy Chinese adults showed a distribution pattern that FIB levels were higher in the South and lower in the North, and higher in the East and lower in the West.

When the geographical factors of a certain area are known, the reference values of FIB in healthy Chinese adults can be obtained by establishing the neural network mode or plotting the spatial distribution map. We aimed to generate reference values for both 'healthy' and 'clinically anxious' populations for these anxiety questionnaires. We included subjects from the general population ROM reference -group and psychiatric outpatients diagnosed with a specific anxiety disorder ROM patient-group.

Receiver Operating Characteristics ROC analyses were used to yield alternative cut-off values for the anxiety questionnaires. For the ROM reference -group the mean age was Females constituted ROC analyses yielded slightly lower reference values.

The discriminative power of all eight anxiety questionnaires was very high. Substantial non-response and limited generalizability. For eight anxiety questionnaires a comprehensive set of reference values was provided. Reference values were generally higher in women than in men. The reference population was composed of adult volunteers who were assessed from November to December Exclusion criteria were: occupational exposure to lead, exposure through personal habits or practices, smoking more than 10 cigarettes per day, and living near industrial plants or other places that use lead in their production processes.

Also excluded were individuals with abnormal clinical or laboratory results or with chronic diseases or cardiovascular disorders. Lead blood levels were determined using air-acetylene flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

The detectable limit was 1. The reference values for lead in blood ranged from 1. The geometric mean was 5. In general, the values found in this study are lower than those that have been reported for other countries. Additional data should be gathered from Brazilian populations living in more-industrialized areas. Repeatability, variability and reference values of pulsed wave Doppler echocardiographic measurements in healthy Saanen goats.

Background Pulsed wave PW Doppler echocardiography has become a routine non invasive cardiac diagnostic tool in most species. However, evaluation of intracardiac blood flow requires reference values , which are poorly documented in goats.

The aim of this study was to test the repeatability, the variability, and to establish the reference values of PW measurements in healthy adult Saanen goats. Using a standardised PW Doppler echocardiographic protocol, 10 healthy adult unsedated female Saanen goats were investigated three times at one day intervals by the same observer.

Mitral, tricuspid, aortic and pulmonary flows were measured from a right parasternal view, and mitral and aortic flows were also measured from a left parasternal view. The difference between left and right side measurements and the intra-observer inter-day repeatability were tested and then the reference values of PW Doppler echocardiographic parameters in healthy adult female Saanen goats were established.

Results As documented in other species, all caprine PW Doppler parameters demonstrated a poor inter-day repeatability and a moderate variability. Tricuspid and pulmonary flows were best evaluated on the right side whereas mitral and aortic flows were best obtained on the left side, and reference values are reported for healthy adult Saanen goats. Conclusions PW Doppler echocardiography allows the measurement of intracardiac blood flow indices in goats.

The reference values establishment will help interpreting these indices of cardiac function in clinical cardiac cases and developing animal models for human cardiology research. Reliability, reference values and predictor variables of the ulnar sensory nerve in disease free adults. The purposes of this descriptive and exploratory study were to examine electrophysiological measures of ulnar sensory nerve function in disease free adults to determine reliability, determine reference values computed with appropriate statistical methods, and examine predictive ability of anthropometric variables.

Antidromic sensory nerve conduction studies of the ulnar nerve using surface electrodes were performed on volunteers. Reference values were computed from optimally transformed data. Reliability was computed from 30 subjects.

Multiple linear regression models were constructed from four predictor variables. Reliability was greater than 0. Responses were elicited in all subjects; reference values for sensory nerve action potential SNAP amplitude from above elbow stimulation are 3.

Electrophysiologic measures of the ulnar sensory nerve are reliable. Absent SNAP responses are inconsistent with disease free individuals.

Reference values recommended in this report are based on appropriate transformations of non-normally distributed data. No strong statistical model of prediction could be derived from the limited set of predictor variables. Reliability analyses combined with relatively low level of measurement error suggest that ulnar sensory reference values may be used with confidence.

Reference values of fractional excretion of exhaled nitric oxide among non-smokers and current smokers. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide FE NO is used to assess of airway inflammation; diagnose asthma and monitor adherence to advised therapy.

Reliable and accurate reference values for FE NO are needed for both non-smoking and current smoking adults in the clinical setting. The present study was performed to establish reference adult FE NO values among never-smokers, former smokers and current smokers. After excluding subjects with asthma, chronic bronchitis, spirometric airway obstruction and current cold, subjects remained. Equations for predictions of FE NO values were modelled using nonparametric regression models.

FE NO levels were similar in never-smokers and former smokers, and these two groups were therefore merged into a group termed "non-smokers". Reference equations, including the 5th and 95th percentiles, were generated for female and male non-smokers, based on age, height and atopy.

Regression models for current smokers were unstable. Hence, the proposed reference values for current smokers are based on the univariate distribution of FE NO and fixed cut-off limits. Reference values for FE NO among respiratory healthy non-smokers should be outlined stratified for gender using individual reference values. For current smokers separate cut-off limits are proposed. Methodology to define biological reference values in the environmental and occupational fields: the contribution of the Italian Society for Reference Values SIVR.

Biological reference values RVs explore the relationships between humans and their environment and habits. RVs are fundamental in the environmental field for assessing illnesses possibly associated with environmental pollution, and also in the occupational field, especially in the absence of established biological or environmental limits.

Aspects regarding the choice of population sample, the quality of analytical data, statistical analysis and control of variability factors are considered. The simultaneous interlaboratory circuits involved can be expected to increasingly improve the quality of the analytical data. With the proposed procedure, SIVR intends to make its activities known to the scientific community in order to increase the number of laboratories involved in the definition of RVs for the Italian population.

More research is needed to obtain further RVs in different biological matrices, such as hair, nails and exhaled breath. It is also necessary to update and improve the present reference values and broaden the portfolio of chemicals for which RVs are available.

In the near future, SIVR intends to expand its scientific activity by using a multivariate approach for xenobiotics that may have a common origin, and to define RVs separately for children who may be exposed more than adults and be more vulnerable.

The interpretation of gas exchange measured by cardiopulmonary exercise testing CPET depends on reliable reference values. The assessment based on symptom limited exercise tests on a bicycle in a sitting position according to a modified Jones protocol.

CPET was embedded in an extensive examination program. After the exclusion of active smokers and volunteers with evidence of cardiopulmonary and musculoskeletal disorders the reference population comprised healthy subjects women aged 25 to 85 years. All values were corrected for the most important influencing factors.

This study provides reference equations for gas exchange and exercise capacity assessed within a population in Germany. Reference values for serum ferritin and percentage of transferrin saturation in Korean children and adolescents. Ferritin reference values vary by age, gender, and ethnicity.

We aimed to determine reference values of serum ferritin SF and the percentage of transferrin saturation TSAT for Korean children and adolescents. We analyzed data from 2, participants 1, males and 1, females aged years from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey In males, mean SF tended to be relatively constant among participants aged 10 to 14 years, with an upward trend thereafter.

Mean SF trended downward among female participants until the age of 15 years and remained constant thereafter. Thus, significant gender differences in ferritin exist from the age of 14 years. High levels of SF were associated with obesity, and lower SF levels were associated with anemia and menarche status. The reference values for SF calculated in this study can be used to test the association between SF values and other defined diseases in Korean children and adolescents.

Estimating clinical chemistry reference values based on an existing data set of unselected animals. In an attempt to standardise the determination of biological reference values , the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry IFCC has published a series of recommendations on developing reference intervals.

The IFCC recommends the use of an a priori sampling of at least healthy individuals. However, such a high number of samples and laboratory analysis is expensive, time-consuming and not always feasible, especially in veterinary medicine.

In this paper, an alternative a posteriori method is described and is used to determine reference intervals for biochemical parameters of farm animals using an existing laboratory data set. The method used was based on the detection and removal of outliers to obtain a large sample of animals likely to be healthy from the existing data set. This allowed the estimation of reliable reference intervals for biochemical parameters in Sarda dairy sheep.

This method may also be useful for the determination of reference intervals for different species, ages and gender. The nutritional requirements of infants. This paper presents a review of the current knowledge regarding the macro- and micronutrient requirements of infants and discusses issues related to these requirements during the first year of life. The paper also reviews the current reference values used in European countries and the methodological approaches used to derive them by a sample of seven European and international authoritative committees from which background scientific reports are available.

Throughout the paper, the main issues contributing to disparities in micronutrient reference values for infants are highlighted. The identification of these issues in relation to the specific physiological aspects of infants is important for informing future initiatives aimed at providing standardized approaches to overcome variability of micronutrient reference values across Europe for this age group. Establishment of new complete blood count reference values for healthy Thai adults. Laboratory reference ranges are essential for diagnostic orientation and treatment decision.

As complete blood count parameters are influenced by various factors, including gender, geographic origin, and ethnic origin, it is important to establish specific hematologic reference values for specific populations. Hematologic and routine chemistry analysis were performed. Participants were determined to be healthy based on medical history and routine medical examinations.

Serum vitamin B12, folate, ferritin, and hemoglobin typing were also analyzed to exclude the possible presence of anemia. A statistically significant difference was observed between males and females for Hb level, hematocrit level, red blood cell count, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, percentage neutrophils, monocytes and eosinophils, and absolute neutrophil, lymphocyte, basophil, and platelet counts. Accordingly, gender-specific reference intervals were established for all complete blood count parameters in healthy Thai adult population.

The reference value ranges established in this study reflect significant differences between genders. It is possible that these reference ranges may be generalizable to adults living in Thailand. The findings of this study emphasize the importance of establishing specific hematologic reference values for specific populations. A key deliverable of VALUE is the development of a systematic validation framework to enable the assessment and comparison of downscaling methods. Such assessments can be expected to crucially depend on the existence of accurate and reliable observational reference data.

In dynamical downscaling, observational data can influence model development itself and, later on, model evaluation, parameter calibration and added value assessment. In empirical-statistical downscaling, observations serve as predictand data and directly influence model calibration with corresponding effects on downscaled climate change projections. We here present a comprehensive assessment of the influence of uncertainties in observational reference data and of scale-related issues on several of the above-mentioned aspects.

The analysis reveals a considerable influence of the choice of the reference data on the evaluation results, especially for precipitation. It is also illustrated how differences between the reference data sets influence the ranking of RCMs according to a comprehensive set of performance measures. The prognostic value of standardized reference values for speckle-tracking global longitudinal strain in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

Speckle-tracking left ventricular global longitudinal strain GLS assessment may provide substantial prognostic information for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy HCM patients. Reference values for GLS have been recently published. Patients were followed for a composite of events including heart failure hospitalization, sustained ventricular arrhythmia, and all-cause death. The power of GLS to predict outcomes was assessed relative to traditional clinical and echocardiographic variables present in HCM.

Abnormal GLS was the only echocardiographic variable independently predictive of the primary outcome [multivariate Hazard ratio 5. When combined with traditional clinical variables, abnormal GLS remained independently predictive of the primary outcome [multivariate Hazard ratio 5. In a model including the strongest clinical and echocardiographic predictors of the primary outcome, abnormal GLS demonstrated significant incremental benefit for risk stratification [net reclassification improvement 0.

Reference hematologic and plasma chemistry values of brown tree snakes Boiga irregularis. Reference hematologic and plasma chemistry values were determined from blood samples collected from 53 clinically healthy brown tree snakes Boiga irregularis. Female snakes had significantly higher mean plasma values for total solids, total protein, calcium Ca , phosphorus P , uric acid, and blood monocyte percentage than did males, whereas males had significantly higher mean plasma fibrinogen values. The variances for hematocrit, monocyte percentage, azurophil percentage, plasma total solids, plasma total protein, albumin, Ca, and P also differed significantly between sexes.

The higher mean values and greater variances for plasma total protein, plasma total solids, Ca, and P in the female snakes were probably associated with yolk synthesis and accumulation. Haematology and plasma chemistry of the red top ice blue mbuna cichlid Metriaclima greshakei. Clinical haematology and blood plasma chemistry can be used as a valuable tool to provide substantial diagnostic information for fish.

A wide range of parameters can be used to assess nutritional status, digestive function, disease identification, routine metabolic levels, general physiological status and even the assessment and management of wild fish populations.

However to evaluate such data accurately, baseline reference intervals for each measurable parameter must be established for the species of fish in question.

Baseline data for ornamental fish species are limited, as research is more commonly conducted using commercially cultured fish. Blood samples were collected from sixteen red top ice blue cichlids Metriaclima greshakei , an ornamental freshwater fish, to describe a range of haematology and plasma chemistry parameters. Since this cichlid is fairly large in comparison with most tropical ornamental fish, two independent blood samples were taken to assess a large range of parameters.

No significant differences were noted between sample periods for any parameter. Values obtained for a large number of parameters were similar to those established for other closely related fish species such as tilapia Oreochromis spp.