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Farao to search form Skip to main content. Biology Published DOI: At the age of sex days, Pharaoh quail were characterized by significantly lower faraon weight, length of faraaon with neck, and length of trunk compared to day-old birds. Younger quail had slightly shorter breast bone and lower sex, smaller chest girth, and the same length of shanks.
Body conformation indices were significantly Sex View PDF. Save to Library. Create Alert. Share This Paper. Tables from this paper. Sex Publications citing this paper. The impact of eggshell colour faraln spot area in Japanese quails: II.
References Publications referenced by this paper. Growth and development of young game pheasants Phasianus faraon. BernackiA. The influence faraon different stocking density and sex on productive performance and faraon physiological sex of Japanese quail. Carcass characteristics faraon pekin ducks selected for greater breast sex thickness using fagaon scanning in response to dietary sex. Antoine G. Effect of separate and mixed rearing according to sex on fattening performance and carcass faraon in Japanese quails Coturnix coturnix Japonica Selim KulIbrahim T.
SekerOzge Tasgin Yildirim. The effect faraon age and sex on slaughter traits of pheasants Phasianus colchicus L.
AdamskiJ. Related Papers.
View PDF. Save to Library. Create Alert. Share This Paper. Tables from this paper. Citations Publications citing this paper. The impact of eggshell colour and spot area in Japanese quails: II. A p -value lower than 0. Treatment with the angiotensin receptor blocker ARB , valsartan, was initiated a week before surgery and lasted up until the end of the protocol 9 weeks later.
Surgery itself, had no effects on body weight gain during the protocol. The only significant difference was for the left atrial weight which was decreased by the ARB treatment in females.
Moreover, heart total and indexed weights were significantly reduced in female animals treated with the ARB Table 3. Only a trend for a decrease was present in males. This was also true for the left and right ventricles, which were smaller in female AR rats treated with valsartan. This again, was not observed in AR males. Lungs weight a marker of overt heart failure remained stable in the AR groups suggesting that the animals were still in the compensated state of the disease. In Fig. As expected, AR caused important cardiac hypertrophy in both male and female animals compared to sham.
Valsartan had relatively little effects in blocking the development of cardiac hypertrophy in male animals. On the other hand, the hypertrophic response was slowed in female AR animals; this was significant for the left ventricle.
Results are expressed as the percentage of variation of the indicated parameter compared to the mean of the same parameter for the respective sham-operated group. ARB treatment with valsartan of sham-operated rats had relatively no effects on echocardiographic parameters measured in this study Table 4.
Calculated ejection fraction, although still in the normal range was lower in treated sham males. In AR animals, the effects of valsartan were observed on the LV wall thickness intraventricular septal wall SW and posterior wall PW , which were thinner in females compared to untreated AR rats. Diastolic LV parameters were significantly altered in AR rats. Valsartan treatment had no effects on these parameters in males but significantly reduced E wave slope in females. As illustrated in Fig.
However, LV septal and posterior walls thickening was more important in females. This was almost completely blocked by ARB treatment. Results are expressed as the percentage of variation of the indicated parameter compared to the mean of the same parameter of the respective untreated sham-operated group. A End-diastolic diameter, B end-systolic diameter, C inter-ventricular septal wall thickness and D posterior wall thickness.
E wave slope, the most reliable marker of changes in diastolic function in our model was also increased Plante et al. Valsartan treatment had no effects on these parameters in males but significantly reduced E wave and E wave slope in AR female. We measured LV gene expression for several hypertrophy markers in AR animals relative to sham controls. This increase was stronger for Bnp expression in females compared to males and was reversed by ARB treatment.
Valsartan also reversed the increase in Anp expression in AR females. The expression of other hypertrophy markers was only changed in AR males but not in females Fig. Valsartan lowered Fos expression in both male and female animals but had little effects on the other two genes studied.
Trpc6 was up-regulated and Klf15 , down-regulated in AR males. As expected, Myh6 gene expression was reduced, by AR whereas Myh7 expression increased. Valsartan treatment had no effect on the expression of both Myh genes. Messenger RNA levels of the respective sham group were normalized to 1 and is represented by the dotted line. Gene expression of extracellular components were only mildly regulated as illustrated in Fig. Itgb1 encodes for beta-1 integrin, a sensor of mechanical stretch expressed on the surface of cardiac myocytes.
In all AR groups with the exception of untreated males, Itgb1 was up-regulated. Timp1 was up-regulated in AR males and Lox in both males and females. The expression of the latter was reduced in ARB-treated males. Ctgf gene expression was increased in all AR groups but females treated with valsartan. In this study, we observed that angiotensin II receptor blockade using valsartan reduces the LV wall thickening taking place in AR female rats.
We had previously shown that LV remodeling from AR in this model involves similar LV dilation in rats of both sexes but an excess of wall thickening in females. The classic view of cardiac remodeling induced by a hemodynamic overload is that pressure overload hypertension or aortic stenosis; afterload is associated with initial concentric LV hypertrophy wall thickening and equal or smaller chamber volume.
This is probably more accurate for male animal models than for females as evidenced in the present study. We observed that eccentric LV remodeling took place in AR males resulting in a lower relative wall thickness ratio.
In AR females, LV wall thickening concurrent to its dilation resulted in a maintained relative wall thickness ratio. We observed that LV dilation was similar and relatively unaffected by angiotensin receptor blockade by valsartan both in males and females. Blood regurgitation from the aorta to the LV during diastole is a relatively stable determinant of the disease and cannot be modulated significantly by ARB.
Indexed LV mass estimated by echocardiography showed a similar trend where valsartan treatment partly reversed hypertrophy in females but not in males. The method we used makes the geometrical assumption of an elliptical LV.
It is possible that the shape of the dilated LV in female AR rats does not obey this assumption. Aortocaval fistula ACF is a model of global cardiac volume overload where sex differences have been studied with some details in the past in rats. Although this form of VO is less relevant for a clinical standpoint, it remains the most popular pre-clinical VO model in the literature. A few years later, Dent and collaborators characterized this model further by echocardiography and at the molecular level.
In the AR rat model, we did not observe major effects related to the loss of estrogens by ovariectomy in females Drolet et al. Pharmacological interventions for cardiovascular diseases and heart failure are often less prescribed in women.
Their absorption, distribution , metabolism and clearance is often different Humphries et al. It is not excluded that the differences we observed here may have been related to sex-specific handling of ARB by females compared to males.
Unfortunately, sex differences in the responseresponse to treatment in pre-clinical models of cardiovascular diseases have received little attention. In the pressure overload SHR spontaneously hypertensive rats model of LV hypertrophy, head-to-head comparison of treatment in animals of both sexes have seldom been performed. In , Pfeffer and collaborators showed similar effects between male and female SHR of two anti-hypertensive agents hydralazine and guanethidine on LV hypertrophy Pfeffer et al.
Captopril ACE inhibitor has been shown to be effective to block LV hypertrophy in both males and females but was not compared in the same study Pfeffer et al. Both regimen were efficient to lower LV hypertrophy development and this was similar for males and females.
Romero and collaborators observed a better response of male SHR to atrial natriuretic treatment than for females although benefits were present for all animals Romero et al.
Sex dimorphism in the response to treatment has not been studied before in VO rodent models. The present study design is also different from previous studies we made on male animals using this model Arsenault et al. Here, we started treatment before the surgical induction of valve regurgitation instead of two weeks after and thus, when cardiac hypertrophy is already present.
We choose to initiate treatment before AR induction in order to investigate the early implication of angiotensin II in the LV remodeling caused by severe VO instead of attempting to reproduce a more clinical situation. This study was also relatively short 2 months instead of being more chronic 6 months and more concentrating in early events.
We consider that at the end of the protocol the animals were still in the compensated phase of the disease although both systolic and diastolic functions indicators were already significantly but not severely, altered.
We showed in previous chronic studies that renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system RAAS inhibition using either angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors such as captopril or angiotensin II receptor antagonists such as losartan can reduce the extent in LV hypertrophy, dilation and improve survival in males Plante et al. By comparing these studies performed in males to the present one, we noticed that the RAAS implication during the early stages of LV remodeling after AR induction does not seem to be as important as the one of the mTORC signaling pathway we observed in a previous study Drolet et al.
It is possible that a higher dosage of valsartan may have provide a better inhibition. The present study also enlightened that development of LV hypertrophy in this model first involves rapid LV dilation to accommodate the increased blood volume during diastole in males. In previous studies in males, we observed either a mild raise in systolic blood pressure or no changes Plante et al. This helps maintain an enlarged but relatively normal LV morphology relative wall thickness.
Gain of LV mass is relatively as important as for AR males. In AR males however, our results seems to indicate that the RAAS blockade early in the disease is less consequential than later in the disease.
LV hypertrophy development is rapid in our model during the first months and then slows later but still goes on Plante et al. We can assume the first phase of LV remodeling is focused on the adaptation to pump the additional regurgitating blood. Then later in the disease, LV dilation continues and this can be blocked by either inhibiting angiotensin converting enzyme with captopril or ARB Plante et al. This inhibition of the RAAS later in the disease provides benefits such as less LV hypertrophy, better myocardial energy metabolism and better survival Arsenault et al.
Happy hour runs from You can find dozens of erotic massage parlours in Prague, each offering a similar range of treatments. Prices vary by venue with the larger salons often being more expensive but usually having better looking girls. Happy endings are a given at most of these venues and some will allow mutual touching, petting and sometimes more. However, it is always worth checking in advance to avoid any kind of misunderstanding and disappointment.
Erotic massage, in itself, is a service and if you want to pay for sex then you would be better off using a laufhaus or escort. Whilst a lot of the brothels also offer strip, the following venues have more of a focus on the performance and cabaret than just offering sexy ladies. Some also offer escort services and private shows. Darling has one of the best known reputations in Prague for putting on excellent shows. The venue provides erotic shows that are well-choreographed and are both imaginative and, at times, daring.
There is also a regular live sex show which is not to be missed. The lesbian show is something worth getting steamed up over. Image via website. When not performing, the girls are on hand in the bar wearing nothing but micro-bikinis to help entertain guests. A modern venue with about 30 girls performing, you can arrange for a free limousine pick up direct from your hotel. Goldfingers is a popular strip club in the heart of the city, originally opening in It has a strong reputation for the professional shows which include cabaret, can-can, flamenco and incredible acrobatics.
Goldfingers is a stylish and modern club which is very popular with tourists. It is more than just a strip club offering a real cornucopia of visual delights. It gets quite busy on the weekend and there are usually at least a couple of large groups in so booking is recommended. There are between 30 and 50 showgirls performing at the venue each day providing table and private dances in addition to choreographed shows. The space is contemporary with plush red and black leather, neon lights, keyhole stage replete with dancing pole and private rooms.
A small bar in the east of the city, Follow Me has a reputation for its late-night raunchy shows. The drinks are reasonably priced and entry is free which makes it a popular place to end a night if you are staying in this side of the city. Generally speaking, the adult venues and street hookers can all be found east of the old town in the area known as Prague 3.
In keeping with the trends in many European cities, street prostitution is on the decline as more women take to the internet to advertise their services.
However, you can still find women working on the streets in areas of the city.