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Navigation Links. Calendar/Results · Courses · Horses · Persons · Search Persons · Eventing Categories · National Federations · Rankings / Standings Sex. A common premise in considering lameness in foals is that young horses have The most important consideration, however, regarding the horse's sex is future. Celebrate Kentucky's awesome $4 billion horse indus horse power. Hot damn! Come on y'all, let's celebrate horse sex with these socks!

Celebrate Kentucky's awesome $4 billion horse indus horse power. Hot damn! Come on y'all, let's celebrate horse sex with these socks! Index Terms: Equine; electrocardiogram; ponies; age; sex permitiu estabelecer os padrões eletrocardiográficos para a raça Mini Horse e conseguiu verificar a. See also fitness; training issues event horses, gallops (Quarterhorses), by sex and breed, ,t effects of faulty, event horses, – faulty.

The Enumclaw horse sex case was a series of incidents in involving Kenneth Pinyan . Two days later, an anonymous person e-mailed investigators a photo of a man who was having sex with a Shetland pony from Thomason's farm, and. [27] found no effect of sex on emotionality in young horses in three .. Hemsworth L, Jongman E, Coleman G. Recreational horse welfare: The. See also fitness; training issues event horses, gallops (Quarterhorses), by sex and breed, ,t effects of faulty, event horses, – faulty.

The horse Equus ferus caballus [2] [3] is one of two extant subspecies of Equus ferus. It is an odd-toed ungulate mammal belonging to the taxonomic family Equidae. Humans began domesticating horses around BC, and their domestication is believed to have been widespread by BC. Horses in the subspecies caballus are domesticated, although some domesticated populations live in the wild as feral horses. These feral populations are not true wild horsesas this term is used to describe horses that have never been domesticated, such as the endangered Przewalski's horsea separate subspecies, and the only remaining sex wild horse.

There is an extensive, specialized vocabulary used to describe equine-related concepts, covering everything from anatomy to life stages, size, colorsmarkingsbreedslocomotionand behavior.

Horses are adapted to run, allowing them to quickly escape predators, horse an excellent sense of balance and a strong fight-or-flight response.

Related to this need to flee from predators in the wild is an unusual trait: horses are able to sleep both standing up and lying down, with younger horses tending to sleep significantly more than adults. Most domesticated horses begin training under saddle or in harness between the ages of two and four.

Horse breeds are loosely divided into three categories based on general temperament: spirited "hot bloods" with speed and endurance; "cold bloods", such as draft horses and some poniessuitable for slow, heavy work; and " warmbloods ", developed from crosses between hot bloods and cold bloods, often focusing on creating breeds for specific riding sex, particularly in Europe.

Horses and humans interact in a wide variety of sport competitions and non-competitive recreational pursuits, as well as in working activities such as police workagricultureentertainment, and therapy.

Horses were historically used in warfare, from which a wide variety of riding and driving techniques developed, using many different styles of equipment and methods of control. Many products are derived from horses, including meat, milk, hide, hair, bone, and pharmaceuticals extracted from the urine of pregnant mares. Humans provide domesticated horses with food, water, and shelter, as well as attention from specialists such as veterinarians and farriers.

Specific terms and specialized language are used to describe equine anatomydifferent life stages, and colors and breeds. In horse racingthese definitions may differ: For example, in the British Isles, Thoroughbred horse racing defines colts and fillies as less than five years old.

The height of horses is measured at the highest point of the witherswhere the neck meets the horse. In English-speaking countries, the height of horses is often stated in units of hands and inches: one hand is equal to 4 inches The height is sex as the number of full hands, followed by a pointthen the number of additional inches, and ending with the abbreviation "h" or "hh" for "hands high".

Thus, a horse described as " The size of horses varies by breed, but also is influenced by nutrition. The largest horse in recorded sex was probably a Shire horse named Mammothwho was born in He stood Ponies are taxonomically the same animals as horses.

The distinction between a horse and pony is commonly drawn on the basis of height, especially for competition purposes. However, height alone is not dispositive; the difference between horses and ponies may also include aspects of phenotypeincluding conformation and temperament. The traditional standard for height of a horse or a pony at maturity is An animal Height is not the sole criterion for distinguishing horses from ponies. Breed registries for horses that typically produce individuals both under and over Ponies often exhibit thicker manes, tails, and overall coat.

They also have proportionally shorter legs, wider barrels, heavier bone, shorter and thicker necks, and short heads with broad horse. They may have sex temperaments than horses and also a high level of intelligence that may or may not be used to cooperate with human handlers. Horses have 64 chromosomes. It contains 2. Horses exhibit a diverse array of coat colors horse distinctive markingsdescribed by a specialized vocabulary.

Often, a horse is classified first horse its coat color, before breed or sex. Many genes that create horse coat colors and patterns have been identified. Current genetic tests can identify at least 13 different alleles influencing coat color, [44] and research continues to discover new genes linked to specific traits.

The basic coat colors of chestnut and black are determined by the gene controlled by the Melanocortin 1 receptor[45] also known as the "extension gene" or "red factor," [44] as its recessive form is "red" chestnut and its dominant form is black. Horses that have a white coat color are often mislabeled; a horse that looks "white" is usually a middle-aged or older gray. Grays are born a darker shade, get lighter as they age, but usually keep black skin underneath their white hair coat with the exception of pink skin under white markings.

Horse only horses properly called white are born with a predominantly white hair coat and pink skin, a fairly rare occurrence. The estrous cycle of a mare occurs roughly every 19—22 days and occurs from early spring into autumn. Most mares enter an anestrus period during the winter and thus do not cycle in this period.

Larger horses have larger bones; therefore, not only do the bones take longer to form bone tissuesex the epiphyseal plates are larger and take longer to convert from cartilage to bone. These plates convert after the other parts of the bones, and are crucial to development.

Depending on maturity, breed, and work expected, horses are usually put under saddle and trained to be ridden between the ages horse two and four. The horse skeleton averages bones. The horse's four legs and hooves are also unique structures.

Their leg bones are proportioned differently from those of a human. For example, the body part that is called a horse's "knee" is actually made up of the carpal bones that correspond to the human wrist. Similarly, the hock contains bones equivalent to those in the human ankle and heel. The lower leg bones of a horse correspond to the bones of the human hand or foot, and the fetlock incorrectly called the "ankle" is actually the proximal sesamoid bones between the cannon bones a single equivalent to the human metacarpal or metatarsal bones and the proximal phalangeslocated where one finds the "knuckles" of a human.

A horse also has no muscles in its legs below the knees and hocks, only skin, hair, bone, tendonsligamentscartilageand the assorted specialized tissues that make up the hoof. The critical importance of the feet and legs is summed up by the traditional adage, "no foot, no horse". The exterior hoof wall and horn of the sole is made of keratinthe same material as a human fingernail.

The hoof continually grows, and in most domesticated horses needs to be trimmed and horseshoes reset, if used every five to eight weeks, [65] though the hooves of horses in the wild wear down and regrow at a rate suitable for their terrain. Horses are adapted to grazing. Stallions and geldings have four additional teeth just behind the incisors, a type of canine teeth called "tushes".

Some horses, both male and female, will also develop one to four very small vestigial teeth in front of the molars, known as "wolf" teeth, which are generally removed because they can interfere with the bit.

There is an empty interdental space between the incisors and the molars where the bit rests directly on the gums, or "bars" of the horse's mouth when the horse is bridled. An estimate of sex horse's age can be made from looking at its teeth. The teeth continue to erupt throughout life and are worn down by grazing. Therefore, the incisors show changes as the horse ages; they develop a distinct sex pattern, changes in tooth shape, and changes in the angle at which horse chewing surfaces meet.

This allows a very rough estimate of a horse's age, although diet and veterinary care can also affect the rate of tooth wear. Horses are herbivores with a digestive system adapted to a forage diet of grasses and other plant material, consumed steadily throughout the day. Therefore, compared to humans, they have a relatively small stomach but very long intestines to facilitate a steady flow of nutrients.

Horses are not ruminantsthey have only one stomach, like humans, but unlike humans, they can utilize cellulosea major component of grass. Horses are hindgut fermenters. Cellulose fermentation by symbiotic bacteria occurs in the cecumor "water gut", which horse goes through before reaching the large intestine.

Horses cannot vomitso digestion problems can quickly cause colica leading cause of death. The horses' senses are based on their status as prey animalswhere they must be sex of their surroundings at all times. Their sense of smellwhile much better than that of humans, is not quite as good as that of a dog. It is believed to sex a key role in the social interactions of horses as well as detecting other key scents in the environment.

Horses have two olfactory centers. The first system is in the nostrils and nasal cavity, which analyze a wide range of odors. The second, located under the nasal cavity, are the Vomeronasal organsalso called Jacobson's organs. These have a separate nerve pathway to the brain and appear to primarily analyze pheromones.

This study also recommended keeping music under a volume of 21 decibels. Horses have a great sense of balance, due partly to their ability to feel their footing and partly to highly developed proprioception —the unconscious sense of where the horse and limbs are at all times.

The most sensitive areas are around the eyes, ears, and nose. Horses have an advanced sense of taste, which allows them to sort through fodder and choose what they would most like to eat, [79] and their prehensile lips can easily sort even small grains. Horses generally will not eat poisonous plants, however, there are exceptions; horses will occasionally eat toxic amounts of poisonous plants even when there is adequate healthy food. All horses move naturally with four basic gaits : the four-beat walkwhich averages 6.

Horses are prey animals with a strong fight-or-flight response. Their first reaction to threat is to startle and usually flee, although they will stand their ground and horse themselves when flight is impossible or if their young are threatened. Most light horse riding breeds were developed for speed, agility, alertness and endurance; natural qualities that extend from their wild ancestors. However, through selective breeding, some breeds of horses are quite docile, particularly certain draft horses.

Horses are herd animalswith a clear hierarchy of rank, led by a dominant individual, usually a mare. They are also social creatures that are able to form companionship attachments to their own species and to other animals, including humans. They communicate in various ways, including vocalizations such as nickering or whinnying, mutual groomingand body language. Many horses will become difficult to manage if they are isolated, but with training, horses can learn to accept a human as a companion, and thus be comfortable away from other horses.

Studies have sex that horses perform a number of cognitive tasks on a daily basis, meeting mental challenges that include food procurement and identification of individuals within a social system. They also have good spatial discrimination abilities. Horses excel at simple learning, but also are able to use more advanced cognitive abilities that involve categorization and concept learning. They can learn using habituationdesensitizationclassical conditioningand operant conditioningand positive and negative reinforcement.

Domesticated horses may face greater mental challenges than wild horses, because they live in artificial environments that prevent instinctive behavior whilst also learning tasks that are not natural. One trainer believes that "intelligent" horses are reflections of intelligent trainers who effectively use response conditioning techniques and positive reinforcement to train in the style that best fits with an individual animal's natural inclinations.

In one animal of the group that was older than 15 years, a premature ventricular complex PVC was detected. In this study, no PVC or other pathological arrhythmias were observed in any of the evaluated animals. The P wave in horses has a generally variable morphology that hampers its standardisation because it can be influenced by breed, sex and age Illera et al.

In Andaluz horses, different morphologies of P, including bifid P, single P and biphasic P, were observed Ayala et al. In a previous study, the occurrence of bifid and positive P waves was described in Similarly, the authors reported that the biphasic P-wave morphology was the most frequent and occurred in In this study, a single and positive P wave occurred in In the present study, the presence of single P waves was likely the result of the higher HRs observed in these animals.

These results are not consistent with previous observations in Quarter Horses in which animals older than 10 years had higher QRS durations than younger animals Mantovani et al. Unevenness of the ST segment above 0. In this work, a limited number of animals 3. The conformation of the T wave might differ between horses at rest, even with spontaneous tracing changes. However, this finding was not observed in other studies Patteson , Sheard Knowledge of T-wave morphology in horses is important when monitoring electrolytic and ischemic disorders in which hypoxia and myocardial infarction occur and when monitoring subjects under anaesthesia Diniz et al.

In this study, differences in the P-wave durations were observed from lead II between the age groups; however, no differences in T waves were observed. In a study of Mangalarga horses, the morphology, duration and amplitude of the waves, intervals and segments were influenced by age, breed and sex, and the P and T waves were influenced by age Vicenzi et al. An ECG profile of 60 Mangalarga Marchador horses 39 females and 21 males ranging in age from 1 to 28 years Diniz et al.

The duration of the QRS complex was also higher in males than in females Diniz et al. The findings of this study based on the BA lead are consistent with a previous examination of the cardiac parameters of 12 pony foals Lombard et al. These findings suggest that the ventricular conduction velocity is lower in foals than in adult animals because of their smaller heart size. Although the American Miniature Horse is similar in size to pony breeds, the results revealed differences that indicate the unique features of this breed.

Conflict of interest statement. Cited Dec. Ayala I. Morphology and amplitude values of the electrocardiogram of Spanish-bred horses of different ages in the Dubois leads system. Modifications of the form and amplitude of the electrocardiographic QRS complex during growth in the Spanish-bred horse. Electrocardiographic values in Spanish-bred horses of different ages. Babusci M.

Sistema cardiovascular, p. In: Boffi F. Bello C. Buss D. The normal electrocardiogram of the domestic pony. Electrocardiology Diniz M. Dumont C. Ferasin L. Lack of correlation between canine heart rate and body size in veterinary clinical practice. Small Anim. Fernandes W. Fregin G. The equine electrocardiogram with standardized body and limb positions. Cornell Vet. Hilwig R. Cardiac arrhythmias in the horse. Illera J.

Unipolar thoracic electrocardiography that induces QRS complexes of relative uniformity from male horses. Lamb A. Correlation of heart rate to body weight in apparently normal dogs. Cardiology Lessa D. Revta Bras. Equina Lombard C. Blood pressure, electrocardiogram and echocardiogram measurements in the growing pony foal. Equine Vet. Mantovani M. Electrocardiographic study in the American Quarter Horse breed. McGuirk S. Diagnosis and treatment of cardiac arrhythmias.

North Am. Melchert A. Miller M. A cardiac arrhythmia in the horse: is the ECG normal? Palma J. Biosciences Patteson M. Equine Cardiology. Blackwell Publishing House Science, Oxford. The third man was not charged since he was not visible in the videos seized by investigators. Mudede wrote that at the time of the incident the residents of Enumclaw were shocked and angered by the incident.

In , ten years after the incident, Mudede wrote that Enumclaw residents were unwilling to acknowledge the incident. After Pinyan's death, a video circulated around the internet of Kenneth Pinyan being filmed bent over naked, while another guy helps a horse mount Pinyan doggy style and guide the horse penis into Pinyan's anus.

After a few thrusts by the horse penis into Pinyan's anus, the horse ejaculates and pulls out, where the video ends. The video is named "Deep Thrusts", but is also nicknamed "Mr. Hands" or "2 Guys 1 Horse".

The video, intended originally to sexually gratify the viewer, became one of the first viral reaction videos. This video is featured in the film Zoo. A documentary of the life and death of Pinyan, and the life led by those who came to the farm near Enumclaw, debuted at the Sundance Film Festival under the title Zoo.

It was one of 16 winners out of candidates for the festival, [27] and played at numerous regional festivals in the United States thereafter. In , James Michael Tait moved to Maury County, Tennessee , where he lived on the farm of a man named Kenny Thomason, which had 13 horses, Shetland ponies, goats and dogs. On October 13, , a woman associated with them, Christy D. Morris, was arrested and charged with three counts of animal cruelty. Tait was charged with three counts of felony animal cruelty, while Thomason was charged with two counts of felony animal cruelty.

According to Tait's arrest warrant, he had been engaging in sex acts with a stud horse over a span of several months. Tait and Thomason admitted to engaging in sex acts with a horse. Mudede wrote "It was an almost comically easy law to pass.

Mudede wrote that reading RCW Because of the provision against videotaping, Mudede stated that the law "points an angry finger directly at James Tait. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. American legal case. Main article: Zoo film. Biography portal Horses portal Human sexuality portal. Archived from the original on February 7, Retrieved January 1, The Stranger. Retrieved April 30, Retrieved February 13, — via NYTimes.

Archived from the original on September 26, Retrieved February 13, The Seattle Times. December 30, Retrieved May 11, RCW Positive and negative attributes were mostly evenly spread for mares, with Bossy and Bad being the only negative factors significantly attributed to them. Stallions scored very highly on Trainability , but at the same time were considered Difficult , Bossy and Dangerous.

These results suggest that female participants enter the horse-human dyad with specific ideas based on the sex of the horse. Similar findings were reported when these same participants provided short text answers concerning their horse choice for particular disciplines [ 40 ].

We could also speculate that this set of ideas is also being transmitted from woman to girl riders and is part and parcel of the culture of horse-riding that sees horse-riding as a sport for girls and women, rather than for men and boys. But just how accurate is this set of ideas that is being transmitted?

Given that most studies of equine learning and temperament do not report sex influences on horse temperament, trainability or learning ability, including between geldings and stallions or mares and stallions, the reason respondents assigned the term Bossy to mares and stallions but not geldings appears to reside in beliefs and is yet to be explored experimentally.

While little research has yet been undertaken investigating the role that sex hormones play in riding and competing with stallions and mares, there is anecdotal evidence that stallions can become difficult to control, notably in the presence of mares in oestrus. Owner gender and animal sex are reported to influence the interpretations of companion cat and dog behavior, including the behavior of de-sexed animals [ 53 , 54 ].

Indeed, in male dogs this is an area of scientific enquiry that continues to yield surprising results with desexing appearing to exacerbate many behaviors that were thought to be ameliorated by it [ 55 ]. Assuming the horse is behaving in a particular way based on its sex alone may lead riders, trainers and handlers to erroneous conclusions about horse behavior and a consequent failure to address the etiology of unwanted behavior.

Riders are in a position to exert a significant influence over factors that affect horse behavior such as their individual riding skills, equipment use and the physical health of the horse [ 50 , 52 , 56 ]. If the behavior of mares and stallions is interpreted as arising from gendered beliefs, rather than other causes, they may be at risk of having stress or pain-related behaviors ignored because of this bias.

The attribute Bossy , which the current participants used to characterize both mares and stallions, is of concern. The concepts of leadership and dominance are still commonly applied in horse training contexts and may encourage or justify the application of punishment [ 57 — 59 ]. Especially prevalent in Natural Horsemanship NH training philosophies, the dominance hierarchy view of human-horse interactions places the trainer as a herd leader with the horse required to be a submissive participant [ 60 ].

Under such conditions the Bossy horse is at risk of having any undesirable behavior interpreted as a lack of respect or as a hierarchical challenge rather than fear, pain or confusion.

Such an interpretation can lead directly to positive punishment of the unwanted behavior rather than diagnosis of its cause. The combination of bias and stereotyping will shape relationships with horses and likely have a detrimental effect on welfare if underlying pathologies or training failures are not addressed [ 50 , 62 ].

A limitation of the current study is that respondents were required to choose between attributes which were selected by the authors. As such, respondents could not indicate if they did not believe that either attribute in each pair accurately reflected an equine sex-based attribute. Additionally, respondents could not choose more than one category of horse for use in each discipline, so the results may not accurately reflect their views about the relative, rather than absolute, suitability of mares, geldings and stallions for each equestrian activity.

The frequent nomination of the gelding for trail-riding may reflect an expectation of reliable and predictable horse behavior arising from the relative absence of sex hormones. Additionally, if undertaken in the company of other horses, the perceived reduction of sex-hormone influences over intraspecific behavior during trail-riding could contribute to perceptions of safety for riders. These same respondents were asked to give short answers to questions surrounding their choice of a mare, gelding or stallion for the disciplines of dressage, show-jumping and trail-riding.

The results of these qualitative data were the subject of further study [ 40 ]. Dashper et al also reported an overall preference for male horses, with mares selected less than twenty-five percent of the time when asked to choose a horse for a sport or leisure activity.

The attribution of gendered characteristics onto horse behavior by female respondents suggests that they may default to attributing undesirable horse behavior to gender, rather than factors such as pain or training confusion.

Further research into the attitudes of male riders towards mares, geldings and stallions could confirm if such views are shared by male riders too. Work in other species has identified gender and sex-based interpretations of behavior by both male and female owners of companion animals such as dogs and cats [ 54 ] and further observational research also could explore whether the gendered understandings are replicated when owners handle and ride horses.

Additionally, research to investigate differences in equine learning, behavior or performance outcomes when ridden by males and females merit empirical study. In preferring male horses, and particularly geldings for most equestrian activities, riders may be unnecessarily limiting their options by avoiding mares which current evidences suggests are no less likely to achieve training outcomes and no more likely to possess emotional or fearful temperaments than geldings.

Gender, behavior and sex stereotyping are prevalent in the equestrian industries. Female riders appear to be entering the horse-human dyad with preconceived gendered ideas about horse temperament and view horse riding as a sport for females. The current survey of human preferences for certain horses prompted more responses from women than from men. This reflects the predominance of women in most equestrian activities.

Women riders express a preference for combining female riders with castrated male horses. Castrated male horses were also preferred for each equestrian discipline of show-jumping, dressage and trail-riding. Mares are perceived, largely without scientific foundation, as being less reliable, less predictable and less desirable than their castrated male counterparts.

In some cases, this is likely to compromise mare welfare. The authors wish to thank the participants, members of the International Society for Equitation Science and the moderators of Cyberhorse , Horseyard and Bush Telegraph.

National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. PLoS One. Published online May Ludek Bartos, Editor. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.

Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Received Oct 2; Accepted Apr This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Abstract We propose that the anthropomorphic application of gender stereotypes to animals influences human-animal interactions and human expectations, often with negative consequences for female animals. Introduction Historically, horses have been used in war, agriculture, and transport [ 1 ] but more recently horse-riding has transitioned to a sporting and leisure activity with an associated shift in attitudes toward horses as companion animals [ 2 , 3 ]. Beliefs about perceived temperament characteristics of horses based on whether they are mares, geldings or stallions Beliefs about the perceived suitability of mares, geldings and stallions for different equestrian pursuits.

Results Participants One thousand two hundred and thirty-three people were surveyed. Open in a separate window. Fig 1. Respondent rider experience. Values in parentheses are row percentages. Horse allocation Respondents were asked to assign a gelding, stallion or mare to the man, woman, boy or girl, leaving one rider with no horse assigned. Table 2 Horse allocation odds ratio estimates for geldings, stallions and mares.

Fig 2. Horse allocation. Fig 3. Allocation considerations. Horse temperament descriptors Respondents were required to assign one adjective of a dichotomour pair as an indicative attribute of gelding, stallion and mare. Fig 4. Positive and negative descriptors assigned to geldings, stallions and mares. Table 3 Odds ratio estimates for horse descriptor allocation.

Horse choice by discipline Respondents were then asked which horses would be most likely to be seen competing in Dressage and show-jumping and, when given the choice of a gelding, stallion or mare, which horse the respondent would chose for trail-riding see Fig 5. Fig 5. Horse choice by discipline. Fig 6. The figure shows discipline choice by rider experience level.

Discussion Our results suggest that participants in this study, who were mainly female see Table 1 , hold preconceived ideas about horse temperament and suitability based on the sex of the horse and the age and gender of the rider.

Conclusions Gender, behavior and sex stereotyping are prevalent in the equestrian industries. Acknowledgments The authors wish to thank the participants, members of the International Society for Equitation Science and the moderators of Cyberhorse , Horseyard and Bush Telegraph. Funding Statement The authors received no specific funding for this work. References 1. Endenburg N. Perceptions and attitudes towards horses in European societies.

Equine Veterinary Journal ; 28 — McGreevy P. Equine behaviour a guide for veterinarians and equine scientists. Introduction , pp. Robinson I. The horse-human relationship: How much do we know? Equine Veterinary Journal. Summary of current knowledge of the size and spatial distribution of the horse population within Great Britain. BMC Veterinary Research. Smyth G, Dagley K. Australian Veterinary Journal. A desired profile of horse personality—A survey study of Polish equestrians based on a new approach to equine temperament and character.

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