Sex offender registries in the United States exist at both the federal and state levels. Registries contain information about persons convicted of sexual offenses. A sex offender is a person who has committed a sex crime. What constitutes a sex crime differs Sex offender registration laws in the United States may also classify less serious offenses as sexual offenses requiring sex offender registration. This web site is provided by the U.S. Department of Justice to provide a free nationwide search for sex offenders registered by states, territories, Indian tribes,.
The National Sex Offender Public Website enables every citizen to search the latest information from all 50 states, D.C., Puerto Rico, Guam, U.S. Virgin Islands. This web site is provided by the U.S. Department of Justice to provide a free nationwide search for sex offenders registered by states, territories, Indian tribes,. the SMART Office plays a vital role in the U.S. government's overarching efforts to notify foreign countries when registered sex offenders are traveling abroad.
The National Sex Offender Public Website allows the public to search for sex offenders registered in all 50 states, United States territories, Indian Country, and. The National Sex Offender Public Website enables every citizen to search the latest information from all 50 states, D.C., Puerto Rico, Guam, U.S. Virgin Islands. A sex offender is a person who has committed a sex crime. What constitutes a sex crime differs Sex offender registration laws in the United States may also classify less serious offenses as sexual offenses requiring sex offender registration.
The following jurisdictions are offline:. Search offenders offender registries for all 50 offenders, The District of Columbia, U. Territories, and Indian Country. Read more about Dru offenddrs. Department of Justice and state, territorial and tribal governments, working together for the safety of adults and children. If you know or suspect sex child is being sexually abused, please report it to your local child protective services. If you are unsure of who to contact, the Child Welfare Information Gateway has a list of contacts.
Sex you have been sexually assaulted, help is available. Call your local police or contact the national offenders assault hotline offenders HOPE free, confidential, anonymous. Sexual abuse and assault can be difficult topics to discuss. Advanced Search. Location Search. Read more about Dru … About Dru. How to Report Abuse and Get Help. Child Welfare Information Sed.
Call sex Safety and Education. How to Prevent. How to Identify. How to Respond. Search in Sex The jurisdiction of has been offline for. You can attempt to search on the jurisdiction's website by clicking the Continue button below. NSOPW does not endorse the organizations or views offenders by this site and takes no responsibility for, and exercises no offenders over, the accuracy, accessibility, copyright or trademark compliance sex legality of the material sex on this site.
To proceed to click the Continue button. Contact Us.
The offenders are photographed and fingerprinted by law enforcement, and in some cases DNA information is also collected. Registration period depends on the classification level and the law of the governing jurisdiction. States apply varied methods of classifying registrants. Identical offenses committed in different states may produce different outcomes in terms of public disclosure and registration period. Sources of variation are diverse, but may be viewed over three dimensions — how classes of registrants are distinguished from one another, the criteria used in the classification process, and the processes applied in classification decisions.
The first point of divergence is how states distinguish their registrants. At one end are the states operating single-tier systems that treat registrants equally with respect to reporting, registration duration, notification, and related factors.
Alternatively, some states use multi-tier systems, usually with two or three categories that are supposed to reflect presumed public safety risk and, in turn, required levels of attention from law enforcement and the public. Depending on state, registration and notification systems may have special provisions for juveniles, habitual offenders or those deemed " sexual predators " by virtue of certain standards.
The second dimension is the criteria employed in the classification decision. States running offense-based systems use the conviction offense or the number of prior offenses as the criteria for tier assignment. Other jurisdictions utilize various risk assessments that consider factors that scientific research has linked to sexual recidivism risk, such as age, number of prior sex offenses, victim gender, relationship to the victim, and indicators of psychopathy and deviant sexual arousal.
Finally, some states use a hybrid of offense-based and risk-assessment-based systems for classification. For example, Colorado law requires minimum terms of registration based on the conviction offense for which the registrant was convicted or adjudicated but also uses a risk assessment for identifying sexually violent predators — a limited population deemed to be dangerous and subject to more extensive requirements.
Third, states distinguishing among registrants use differing systems and processes in establishing tier designations. In general, offense-based classification systems are used for their simplicity and uniformity.
They allow classification decisions to be made via administrative or judicial processes. Risk-assessment-based systems, which employ actuarial risk assessment instruments and in some cases clinical assessments, require more of personnel involvement in the process.
Some states, like Massachusetts and Colorado, utilize multidisciplinary review boards or judicial discretion to establish registrant tiers or sexual predator status. In some states, such as Kentucky, Florida, and Illinois, all sex offenders who move into the state and are required to register in their previous home states are required to register for life, regardless of their registration period in previous residence.
States apply differing sets of criteria to determine which registration information is available to the public. In a few states, a judge determines the risk level of the offender, or scientific risk assessment tools are used; information on low-risk offenders may be available to law enforcement only.
In other states, all sex offenders are treated equally, and all registration information is available to the public on a state Internet site. Information of juvenile offenders are withheld for law enforcement but may be made public after their 18th birthday.
Under federal SORNA , only tier I registrants may be excluded from public disclosure, with exemption of those convicted of "specified offense against a minor. Disparities in state legislation have caused some registrants moving across state lines becoming subject to public disclosure and longer registration periods under the destination state's laws.
Laws restricting where registered sex offenders may live or work have become increasingly common since In addition, hundreds of counties and municipalities have passed local ordinances exceeding the state requirements,   and some local communities have created exclusion zones around churches , pet stores , movie theaters , libraries , playgrounds , tourist attractions or other "recreational facilities" such as stadiums , airports , auditoriums , swimming pools , skating rinks and gymnasiums, regardless of whether publicly or privately owned.
The report also found that laws preclude registrants from homeless shelters within restriction areas. Restrictions may effectively cover entire cities, leaving small "pockets" of allowed places of residency. Evidence to support the effectiveness of public sex offender registries is limited and mixed. In fact, a number of negative unintended consequences have been empirically identified that may aggravate rather than mitigate offender risk.
According to a study, the majority of the general public perceives sex offender recidivism to be very high and views offenders as a homogeneous group regarding that risk. Consequently, the study found that a majority of the public endorses broad community notification and related policies. Critics of the laws point to the lack of evidence to support the effectiveness of sex offender registration policies. They call the laws too harsh and unfair for adversely affecting the lives of registrants decades after completing their initial sentence , and for affecting their families as well.
Critics say that registries are overly broad as they reach to non-violent offenses, such as sexting or consensual teen sex, and fail to distinguish those who are not a danger to society from predatory offenders. Lanning argues that registration should be offender-based instead of offense-based: "A sex-offender registry that does not distinguish between the total pattern of behavior of a year-old man who violently raped a 6-year-old girl and an year-old man who had 'compliant' sexual intercourse with his girlfriend a few weeks prior to her 16th birthday is misguided.
The offense an offender is technically found or pleads guilty to may not truly reflect his dangerousness and risk level". Some lawmakers recognize problems in the laws.
However, they are reluctant to aim for reforms because of political opposition and being viewed as lessening the child safety laws. These perceived problems in legislation have prompted a growing grass-roots movement to reform sex offender laws in the United States. Sex offender registration and community notification laws have been challenged on a number of constitutional and other bases, generating substantial amount of case law.
Those challenging the statutes have claimed violations of ex post facto , due process , cruel and unusual punishment , equal protection and search and seizure. In , in Connecticut Dept. Doe the U. Supreme Court affirmed public disclosure of sex offender information and in , in Smith v. Doe , the Supreme Court upheld Alaska's registration statute, reasoning that sex offender registration is civil measure reasonably designed to protect public safety, not a punishment , which can be applied ex post facto.
However, law scholars argue that even if the registration schemes were initially constitutional they have, in their current form, become unconstitutionally burdensome and unmoored from their constitutional grounds. A study published in fall found that statistics cited by Justice Kennedy in two U. Supreme Court cases commonly cited in decisions upholding constitutionality of sex offender policies were unfounded. In September federal judge found that Colorado registry is unconstitutional cruel and unusual punishment as applied to three plaintiffs.
Sex offender registration and community notification SORN laws carry costs in the form of collateral consequences for both sex offenders and their families, including difficulties in relationships and maintaining employment, public recognition, harassment, attacks, difficulties finding and maintaining suitable housing, as well as an inability to take part in expected parental duties, such as going to school functions.
Registration and notification laws affect not only sex offenders, but also their loved ones. Laws may force families to live apart from each other, because of family safety issues caused by neighbors, or because of residency restrictions.
Family members often experience isolation, hopelessness and depression. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is part of a series on the Sex offender registries in the United States Legislation. Doe Connecticut Department of Public Safety v. Effectiveness of sex offender registration policies in the United States.
Social issues. Reform activism. Movement to reform sex offender laws in the United States. This section may stray from the topic of the article. Please help improve this section or discuss this issue on the talk page. June Main article: Jacob Wetterling Act. Main article: Megan's Law. See also: International Megan's Law. Main article: Effectiveness of sex offender registration policies in the United States. Main article: Constitutionality of sex offender registries in the United States.
Law portal. National Center for Missing and Exploited Children. Retrieved Criminal Justice and Behavior. Archived from the original PDF on 30 September Toledo News. Archived from the original on 2 April Boston Review. The Weekly Standard. Retrieved 1 September Klaas Kids Foundation. Center for Sex Offender Management. Department of Justice. Archived from the original on D Richard G. Springer Publishing Co Inc. The New York Times. Retrieved 26 November Bureau of Justice Statistics.
November 16, Retrieved October 25, April American Public Media. Criminal Justice Policy Review. It is a federal crime for an individual to knowingly fail to register or update his or her registration as required pursuant to the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act SORNA. For example, a sex offender is required to update their registration in each jurisdiction they reside, are employed, or attend school.
In addition, CEOS attorneys conduct trainings to educate law enforcement officials, investigators, prosecutors, and others about the national sex offender registration system. Was this page helpful? Yes No. Thank you for your input. Contact the Webmaster to submit comments.