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Many brain and behavioral disorders differentially affect men and women. The new National Institutes of Health requirement to include both male and female animals in preclinical sex aims to address such health disparities, but we argue that the mandate is not the best solution to this problem. Sex differences are highly species-specific, tied to the mating system and social ecology of a given species or even strain of women.

In many cases, animals poorly replicate male-female differences in brain-related human diseases. We support research that investigates sex-related variables in hypothesis-driven studies of animal brains and behavior. However, institutional policies that require sex analysis and give it special salience over other sources of biological variance can distort research. We caution that the costly imposition of sex analysis on nearly all animal research entrenches the presumption that human brain and behavioral differences are largely biological in origin and overlooks the potentially more powerful social, psychological, and cultural contributors to male-female neurobehavioral health gaps.

The diagnosis of many neuropsychiatric diseases, including autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, stuttering, addiction, depression, anxiety, eating disorders, and chronic pain women is markedly different between males and females. Advocates of the new National Institutes of Health NIH policy requiring investigators to examine sex effects in preclinical research argue that this mandate will lead animal better understanding and treatment of such disorders. We avidly support well-designed animal research that is specifically aimed at studying sex differences and sex-related variables such as gonadal hormones and X chromosome dosage.

We also support full transparency in reporting of animal sex for the purpose of enhancing reproducibility. But we disagree with the NIH mandate that requires analysis of sex effects in biomedical studies. The policy, to be implemented in stages, presently does not address cell culture studies sex does require that sex as a biological variable SABV be factored into research designs, analyses, and reporting in animal studies, with limited exceptions.

Here, we focus our analysis on the broad contention underlying the policy Sandberg and Verbalis, ; Clayton and Collins, and presently under discussion within the research community: that requiring inclusion of male and female animals and comparing results by sex in preclinical research will advance human health by meaningfully addressing outstanding health disparities between men and women.

This is evident even when considering the touchstone example used by advocates of the policy Sandberg and Verbalis, ; Cahill, ; Woodruff et al. Postmarketing data found higher numbers of zolpidem-related adverse events in women than in men. More importantly, there is no evidence to support the supposition that sex differences in zolpidem side effects would have come to light from rodent studies, even if such analysis had been required at the preclinical stage.

Indeed, species differences overwhelm sex differences when it comes to the bioavailability of zolpidem and many other drugs Bueters et al. Finally, it is known that other sex- and gender-related factors, including higher rates of polypharmacy National Center for Health Statistics, and greater likelihood of reporting discomfort in women, compared with men, contribute to the higher numbers of FDA reports of all adverse events in women and are recognized by the FDA as sources of bias in adverse event statistics Food and Drug Administration, In what follows, we argue that this claim is poorly substantiated.

Any time a difference in symptoms, diagnosis, or treatment efficacy between women and men is clearly identified, it is reasonable to look for sex-related physiological mechanisms in preclinical sex.

But the question is: which model? Sexual dimorphism varies enormously between species, quite independently of other phylogenetic relationships. Mice model human size dimorphism better, but their longevity sex difference is the reverse of humans.

Although animal nonhuman species have limitations when extrapolating to human biology, sex difference is uniquely challenging to model in common experimental animals. As Darwin first recognized, and modern evolutionary biologists continue to elucidate, the degree of sexual dimorphism in a species is shaped by mating system, and neither rats nor mice adequately model the conditions of human sexual selection. Human mating systems are highly flexible but predominantly characterized by social with and pair-bonding within extensive kinship communities that engage in biparental and alloparental care of offspring Brown et al.

These ecological features reduce neuroanatomical sex difference compared with polygynous, uniparental species, such as laboratory rats and mice. Among primates, monogamy and pair-bonding are associated with both a animal increase in brain size of both sexes and a decrease in body size dimorphism between males and females Geary, ; Dunbar and Shultz, Among rodents, the effect of mating system on sexual dimorphism in the brain and behavior has been best studied through comparison of the monogamous prairie vole versus the polygynous montane and meadow voles.

Male and female prairie voles form long-term socially monogamous relationships in which both parents contribute nearly equally to nurturing their young and may live in extended family groups with more than one litter McGraw and Young, By comparison, montane and meadow voles are relatively asocial and polygynous. They do not form a partner preference and only females participate in care of the offspring, a pattern much closer to laboratory rat and mouse species.

A similar relationship between mating system and brain sex difference has been observed for vole hippocampal volume, which is larger in male compared with female meadow voles, a polygynous species, but shows no sex difference in the closely related but monogamous pine voles Jacobs et al. However, as leading researchers in the field of animal sex difference caution, simple extrapolation from neural women difference to behavioral sex difference is rarely possible; even the SDN-MPOA has yet to be clearly associated with a specific behavioral or physiological role McCarthy and Arnold, ; McCarthy, It is also the case that physiological sex differences often act to make behavior more similar between males and females in a particular species de Vries, women This is a key principle for understanding sex differences within a given species or strain McCarthy et al.

Such species-specific sex effects make the choice of animal model challenging for researchers studying neuropsychiatric diseases that disparately impact women and men. Greater female longevity is sex among chimpanzees and most rat species, but not among mice and orangutans Sanz et al. Both disorders are about twice as common in women, compared with men Kessler, ; Kessler et al. However, two widely used models of depressive symptoms in rodents immobility in the forced swim test and sucrose sex following chronic mild stress do not replicate women's greater vulnerability; a third model, learned helplessness to uncontrollable foot or tail shock, reveals greater vulnerability in male compared sex female rats.

In most paradigms, such as the open field test, elevated plus maze, light aversion, and passive avoidance, male rats exhibit greater anxiety than females Kokras and Dalla, Much of the difference in hiding and exploratory behavior in these assays is explained by female rats' higher physical activity level, sex sex difference that is opposite in humans, in which boys and men are generally more physically with than girls and women Eaton and Enns, Finally, experimental models of post-traumatic with disorder PTSD also struggle to reproduce its higher prevalence in women Shansky, Once exposed to trauma, women are approximately twice as likely as men to develop PTSD Breslau, Although some rat paradigms show this pattern, male rats actually exhibit greater fear women and retention than females in the widely used fear conditioning model Sex et al.

Similarly, in the single prolonged stress model, male rats' fear extinction does not last as long as that of females. Poorer extinction is thought to be a corollary of PTSD, where patients are unable to adequately extinguish the memory of a highly salient stressor Keller et al.

All of these behavioral sex inversions in rats are especially paradoxical given that anxiety and depressive disorders are thought to reflect dysregulation of the stress response system and female rats do women a more reactive hypothalamic-pituitary axis with males. Women exhibit higher prevalence than men for many chronic pain syndromes, including neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome, musculoskeletal pain, and migraine headache Fillingim et al.

Laboratory studies of threshold and tolerance in healthy participants generally find that women are more sensitive than men to a variety of painful stimuli Racine et al. On the other hand, considerable research does find that pain judgments are influenced by psychosocial factors, especially gender role expectations Alabas et al.

Women are more likely to admit pain and catastrophize it i. Among adults, gender differences in pain thresholds and tolerance are often reduced with eliminated in studies that control for individual differences in anxiety, gender role endorsement, self-efficacy, and coping style Jackson et al. When it comes to clinical practice, animal a leading researcher on animal sex animal concedes that analgesic treatments must with be titrated animal an individual basis, where biological sex is but one of many sources of interindividual variability Mogil, Unipolar depression and anxiety disorders are diagnosed nearly twice as often in adult females than males Kessler, ; Kessler et al.

Like pain syndromes, there is no sex difference in diagnosis of these disorders in childhood, and most evidence indicates that the increase in females at puberty is less a matter of hormonal shifts than of psychosocial factors, including rumination, peer relationship stress, objectified body image, and negative life events, such as sexual harassment Hyde et al. First, depression diagnoses are based largely on subjective responses, with men likelier to mask feelings of vulnerability and worthlessness due to social norms of masculine behavior Addis, Second, the DSM depression criteria themselves are biased toward measuring the internalizing symptoms that are more common with women, such as crying, sadness, guilt, and fatigue.

Recently, clinical researchers have developed masculine depression survey tools that include the externalizing symptoms that men are likelier to report, including animal, anger, and animal abuse Rice et al.

Given that diagnoses such as conduct disorder and substance abuse have the inverse prevalence of depression and anxiety i. Attention with hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorders are also women skewed, in this case, diagnosed up to four times more often in male than female patients. Although often comorbid with depression and anxiety, anorexia nervosa shows a prevalence ratio of in men:women and as high as among to year-old urban, Western adolescents.

Cross-national comparisons find strong evidence linking this disparity to cultural transmission women by globalization, modernization, and media exposure promoting the Western beauty ideal Smink et al.

Clinical researchers are increasingly recognizing the contribution of sociocultural factors to gender disparities in health and medical care outside the neuropsychiatric arena. Chapman et al. They found, for example, that women are three times less likely than men to receive knee arthroplasty when clinically appropriate, perhaps because their pain complaints are judged to be less serious than men's and women are presumed less likely to need the surgery to maintain vigorous physical activity.

Other recent research has uncovered gender disparity in treatment for cardiovascular disease; compared with men of the same age, women younger than 55 years are less likely to be specifically counseled about their cardiovascular disease risk but more likely to be told to lose weight, a difference that may contribute to the higher rate of cardiovascular disease death in with Bairey Merz et al.

Independent of their biological sex, individuals with feminine roles and personality traits animal poorer cardiac outcomes than more masculine individuals, revealing a surprising interaction between psychosocial gender and human sex function in a recent study by Pelletier et al.

Turning back to the brain, the burgeoning field of cultural neuroscience has demonstrated the influence of social attributes such as ethnicity Han and Ma, and poverty Hackman and Farah, on neural structure and function. A few researchers have begun probing relationships between individuals' degree of gender role endorsement and brain activation Bourne and Maxwell, or regional brain volumes Belfi et al.

But generally speaking, the effect of gender with on the animal has received women research attention compared with the sharp focus on sex-based biology Eliot, Sex may further concede that nonhuman organisms cannot model uniquely human gender factors. But, they ask: what are the harms of requiring study of sex as a variable in preclinical research?

Could not studies of sex variables demonstrate their nonexistence or irrelevance as much as women to their overstatement? Here we arrive at a central conceptual disagreement between advocates of the new mandate and many critics. According to this view, sex can be cleanly accessed through studies of nonhuman animals, and sex factors may be expected to function in very similar ways across species and contexts.

We believe that these suppositions are incorrect. The perspective that we outline here is grounded in a different understanding of sex, as a complex biological variable with sex meaning across species and ecologies Fausto-Sterling, ; With, For instance, mouse studies now find many dozens of genes that are differentially expressed by sex, in patterns that change dramatically during development, across different tissues, and in response to various environmental factors Lowe et al.

Additionally, in humans, sex is always and already situated in gendered social contexts: that is, pervasive systems of social roles and power that structure women embodied experiences of human males and animal. According to this view, methodological rigor requires research design that interrogates any human male-female difference as potentially mediated by gendered cultural factors.

Sex-related effects, whether in animals or humans, exist within multiple entangled contexts and are often highly conditional: relevant only within specific phylogenetic, developmental, and ecological settings Joel, ; Kokras and Dalla, ; Shors, For example, one well-studied sex difference is that stress enhances learning for eyeblink conditioning in male rats but impairs the learning in females.

However, this impairment happens only in virgin females, not when they are aged or postpartum Shors, Furthermore, stress has the opposite effect on both rat sexes when the learning involves spatial or object memory: impairing learning in males and enhancing it in females Luine et al.

The conditional nature of sex effects and plasticity of sex determination itself McCarthy, deeply complicate the aim of using animal findings to address human sex- and gender-related health issues. In animal research, sex is not, a priori, more profoundly relevant to biological outcomes than other genetic and environmental sources of variance, which include animal age, strain, diet, housing, social grouping, prenatal experience, experimenter handling, and much more Joel, ; Prendergast et al.

For example, few neuroscientists would deny the profound effect of environmental enrichment on the brain and behavior e. Like each of these important health-related variables, sex should be targeted in specific studies shaped not by rote policy, but by hypotheses grounded in the central theories and methodologies of that field. In humans, these conditional contexts include other interacting biological variables, such as height, body weight, hormone levels, and longevity, as well as psychosocial factors, such as status, self-efficacy, social connectedness, economic security, gender role endorsement, and sexual orientation.

For example, many male-female differences in human brain imaging studies turn out to be epiphenomena of overall sexual dimorphism, not unlike the effect of body weight on zolpidem clearance. Thus, a highly publicized study using sex tensor women DTI in youth 8—22 years of age found statistically stronger interhemispheric connectivity in girls and stronger intrahemispheric connections in boys Ingalhalikar et al.

Ingalhalikar et al. Similar scaling effects have been found for most other structural volumes claimed in early research to differ between men and women, but shown in large studies or meta-analyses not to differ after normalizing for brain size. Such structures animal the corpus callosum, cerebellum, caudate, putamen, thalamus, hippocampus, nucleus accumbens, and cortical gray matter Leonard et al.

The Ingalhalikar et al. Although neuroscientists understand that structural and functional brain differences can be induced by experience and neuroplasticity Fine et al.

For those conducting animal research, there is no question that sex-related variables, like any number of sources of variance, are a valid concern in with type of study from the molecular to the behavioral level.

They may further concede that nonhuman organisms cannot model uniquely human gender factors. But, they ask: what are the harms of requiring study of sex as a variable in preclinical research? Could not studies of sex variables demonstrate their nonexistence or irrelevance as much as contribute to their overstatement? Here we arrive at a central conceptual disagreement between advocates of the new mandate and many critics.

According to this view, sex can be cleanly accessed through studies of nonhuman animals, and sex factors may be expected to function in very similar ways across species and contexts. We believe that these suppositions are incorrect. The perspective that we outline here is grounded in a different understanding of sex, as a complex biological variable with unstable meaning across species and ecologies Fausto-Sterling, ; Richardson, For instance, mouse studies now find many dozens of genes that are differentially expressed by sex, in patterns that change dramatically during development, across different tissues, and in response to various environmental factors Lowe et al.

Additionally, in humans, sex is always and already situated in gendered social contexts: that is, pervasive systems of social roles and power that structure the embodied experiences of human males and females.

According to this view, methodological rigor requires research design that interrogates any human male-female difference as potentially mediated by gendered cultural factors. Sex-related effects, whether in animals or humans, exist within multiple entangled contexts and are often highly conditional: relevant only within specific phylogenetic, developmental, and ecological settings Joel, ; Kokras and Dalla, ; Shors, For example, one well-studied sex difference is that stress enhances learning for eyeblink conditioning in male rats but impairs the learning in females.

However, this impairment happens only in virgin females, not when they are aged or postpartum Shors, Furthermore, stress has the opposite effect on both rat sexes when the learning involves spatial or object memory: impairing learning in males and enhancing it in females Luine et al. The conditional nature of sex effects and plasticity of sex determination itself McCarthy, deeply complicate the aim of using animal findings to address human sex- and gender-related health issues.

In animal research, sex is not, a priori, more profoundly relevant to biological outcomes than other genetic and environmental sources of variance, which include animal age, strain, diet, housing, social grouping, prenatal experience, experimenter handling, and much more Joel, ; Prendergast et al.

For example, few neuroscientists would deny the profound effect of environmental enrichment on the brain and behavior e. Like each of these important health-related variables, sex should be targeted in specific studies shaped not by rote policy, but by hypotheses grounded in the central theories and methodologies of that field. In humans, these conditional contexts include other interacting biological variables, such as height, body weight, hormone levels, and longevity, as well as psychosocial factors, such as status, self-efficacy, social connectedness, economic security, gender role endorsement, and sexual orientation.

For example, many male-female differences in human brain imaging studies turn out to be epiphenomena of overall sexual dimorphism, not unlike the effect of body weight on zolpidem clearance. Thus, a highly publicized study using diffusion tensor imaging DTI in youth 8—22 years of age found statistically stronger interhemispheric connectivity in girls and stronger intrahemispheric connections in boys Ingalhalikar et al.

Ingalhalikar et al. Similar scaling effects have been found for most other structural volumes claimed in early research to differ between men and women, but shown in large studies or meta-analyses not to differ after normalizing for brain size. Such structures include the corpus callosum, cerebellum, caudate, putamen, thalamus, hippocampus, nucleus accumbens, and cortical gray matter Leonard et al. The Ingalhalikar et al.

Although neuroscientists understand that structural and functional brain differences can be induced by experience and neuroplasticity Fine et al. For those conducting animal research, there is no question that sex-related variables, like any number of sources of variance, are a valid concern in every type of study from the molecular to the behavioral level. But institutional policies that give sex special salience and emphasis can distort research.

Finally, in considering the merits of this policy, it is important to note the backdrop of current pharmaceutical industry imperatives. Just as manufacturers have learned they can augment their sales of everything from cell phones to soccer balls by marketing them in gender-coded colors, pharmaceutical companies are interested in expanding their patent opportunities by developing gender-specific drugs, even for marginal clinical benefit Hartley, To point, a key advocacy group for expanding preclinical research on sex difference lists 14 major pharmaceutical and medical device manufacturers among its corporate partners Society for Women's Health Research, Treating sex as a uniquely important variable, divorced from its psychosocial entanglements, uncritically embraces this market-driven approach to sex difference research while also leading to a climate of belief that can be harmful when used to support claims of intransigent cognitive and affective differences between men and women Epstein, In , Congress authorized the much-needed NIH Revitalization Act, which requires inclusion of men and women in all research involving human subjects.

We similarly support the study of sex differences and sex-related variables in targeted, well-designed animal research. But the mandate to evaluate sex effects in every animal study, without due consideration of the limitations of such models or a companion initiative to drive research on the gender dimension of health disparities, poses a large burden on preclinical researchers while implicitly endorsing the paradigm that such disparities are largely biological in origin.

Shansky and Catherine S. The authors declare no competing financial interests. Eliot and Richardson offer several reasons to be skeptical that the National Institutes of Health NIH policy on sex as a biological variable SABV will lead to improved outcomes related to human brain health.

By design, their view contrasts with ours. The difference in our perspectives on SABV may arise, at least partly, from different views on the role of animal studies in relation to human health. However, an alternative view one that we ascribe to is that a principal goal of animal research is to understand how biological systems are organized and how they function, both in their baseline state and in response to controlled manipulations including those that model aspects of disease.

In this way, animal research contributes indirectly to improving human health by providing information and ideas that feed the pipeline leading to translational and clinical studies that are directly related to human disease.

A point of contention is whether it is reasonable for NIH to have targeted a policy on sex, as opposed to other variables that influence biological systems. For example, as Eliot and Richardson point out, age and genetic variations associated with strain or manipulations, such as diet, handling, housing conditions, etc. Our view is that the profound underrepresentation of females in basic neuroscience studies, in parallel with compelling examples of sex differences in fundamental aspects of brain function, do justify a policy focused on sex as a variable in animal research.

It is not that sex necessarily is more important than other variables, but that the potential influences of sex have been understudied in the absence of an NIH mandate. Rather, the directive is for animal researchers to study both sexes and attend to which data come from which sex so that the answers to scientific questions will be known in both sexes. In some cases, initial results may justify investment of additional resources that would be required to test for sex effects; in other cases, there will be little reason to do this.

Either way, we believe that the inclusion of data about biological sex will result in a stronger basic science pipeline that, in turn, will better inform the design and interpretation of studies that directly address human health questions. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List J Neurosci v. J Neurosci. Lise Eliot 1 and Sarah S. Richardson 2. Sarah S. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.

Corresponding author. Correspondence should be addressed to Dr. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Many brain and behavioral disorders differentially affect men and women.

Introduction The diagnosis of many neuropsychiatric diseases, including autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, stuttering, addiction, depression, anxiety, eating disorders, and chronic pain syndromes is markedly different between males and females. Limitations of comparing brain and behavioral sex differences across species Any time a difference in symptoms, diagnosis, or treatment efficacy between women and men is clearly identified, it is reasonable to look for sex-related physiological mechanisms in preclinical models.

References Addis ME. Gender and depression in men. Clin Psychol. Sex redefined. Gender role affects experimental pain responses: a systematic review with meta-analysis. Eur J Pain. Gender, cardiovascular disease, and the sexism of obesity. J Am Coll Cardiol. Sex differences in stress-related psychiatric disorders: neurobiological perspectives.

Front Neuroendocrinol. Sex differences in pain: a brief review of clinical and experimental findings. Br J Anaesth. Dev Neuropsychol. Examining the sex difference in lateralisation for processing facial emotion: does biological sex or psychological gender identity matter? The epidemiology of trauma, PTSD, and other posttrauma disorders. Trauma Violence Abuse. Bateman's principles and human sex roles. Trends Ecol Evol. Rat poorly predicts the combined non-absorbed and presystemically metabolized fractions in the human.

Sexual dimorphism in the brain of the monogamous California mouse Peromyscus californicus Brain Behav Evol. Monogamy, strongly bonded groups, and the evolution of human social structure. Evol Anthropol. Physicians and implicit bias: how doctors may unwittingly perpetuate health care disparities. J Gen Intern Med. Studying both sexes: a guiding principle for biomedicine. Policy: NIH to balance sex in cell and animal studies. Sex differences in adult and developing brains: compensation, compensation, compensation.

Evolution in the social brain. How different are girls and boys above and below the diagnostic threshold for autism spectrum disorders? Sex differences in human motor activity level. Psychol Bull. But he himself says pet owners will be unimpressed by this statement, as this is not news to them. She says only a few recent studies have taken data from volunteers in the community.

Medical research suggests that some zoophiles only become aroused by a specific species such as horses , some zoophiles become aroused by multiple species which may or may not include humans , and some zoophiles are not attracted to humans at all. Researchers who observed a monkey trying to mate with a deer in interspecies sex said that it may provide clues into why humans have interspecies sex. Instances of this behavior have been found in the Bible. Raymond Christinger interprets that as a show of power of a tribal chief, [50] and so we do not know if this practice was then more acceptable, and if the scene depicted was usual or unusual or whether it was symbolic or imaginary.

Potters seem to have spent time depicting the practice, but this may be because they found the idea amusing. Pindar, Herodotus, and Plutarch claimed the Egyptians engaged in ritual congress with goats. Bestiality was accepted in some North American and Middle Eastern indigenous cultures. Several cultures built temples Khajuraho , India or other structures Sagaholm , barrow , Sweden with zoophilic carvings on the exterior, however at Khajuraho these depictions are not on the interior, perhaps depicting that these are things that belong to the profane world rather than the spiritual world, and thus are to be left outside.

In the Church-oriented culture of the Middle Ages zoophilic activity was met with execution, typically burning, and death to the animals involved either the same way or by hanging, as "both a violation of Biblical edicts and a degradation of man as a spiritual being rather than one that is purely animal and carnal. As with all accusations and confessions extracted under torture in the witch trials in Early Modern Europe , their validity cannot be ascertained.

Passages in Leviticus 18 Lev "And you shall not lie with any beast and defile yourself with it, neither shall any woman give herself to a beast to lie with it: it is a perversion. If a woman approaches any beast and lies with it, you shall kill the woman and the beast; they shall be put to death, their blood is upon them. However, the teachings of the New Testament have been interpreted by some as not expressly forbidding bestiality.

In Part II of his Summa Theologica , medieval philosopher Thomas Aquinas ranked various "unnatural vices" sex acts resulting in "venereal pleasure" rather than procreation by degrees of sinfulness, concluding that "the most grievous is the sin of bestiality. There are a few references in Hindu scriptures to religious figures engaging in symbolic sexual activity with animals such as explicit depictions of people having sex with animals included amongst the thousands of sculptures of "Life events" on the exterior of the temple complex at Khajuraho.

The depictions are largely symbolic depictions of the sexualization of some animals and are not meant to be taken literally. In many jurisdictions, all forms of zoophilic acts are prohibited; others outlaw only the mistreatment of animals, without specific mention of sexual activity. In the United Kingdom, Section 63 of the Criminal Justice and Immigration Act also known as the Extreme Pornography Act outlaws images of a person performing or appearing to perform an act of intercourse or oral sex with an animal whether dead or alive.

Nor is it a question of the sexual arousal of the defendant", [67] "it could be argued that a person might possess such an image for the purposes of satire, political commentary or simple grossness," according to The Independent. Many new laws banning sex with animals have been made recently, such as in New Hampshire , [69] Ohio , [ citation needed ] Germany , [70] Sweden , [71] Denmark , [72] Thailand , [73] Costa Rica , [74] Bolivia , [75] and Guatemala.

Laws on zoophilia are sometimes triggered by specific incidents. In the past, some bestiality laws may have been made in the belief that sex with an animal could result in monstrous offspring, as well as offending the community. Current anti-cruelty laws focus more specifically on animal welfare while anti-bestiality laws are aimed only at offenses to community "standards".

The agency believed current animal cruelty legislation was not sufficient in protecting animals from abuse and needed updating, but concluded that on balance it was not appropriate to call for a ban. Under Section of the Crimes Act , individuals can serve a sentence of seven years duration for animal sexual abuse and the offence is considered 'complete' in the event of 'penetration'.

Some countries once had laws against single males living with female animals, such as Alpacas. As of , bestiality is illegal in 45 U. Most state bestiality laws were enacted between and After an incident on 2 July , when a man was pronounced dead in the emergency room of the Enumclaw community hospital after his colon ruptured due to having been sodomized by a horse, the farm garnered police attention.

The state legislature of the State of Washington , which had been one of the few states in the United States without a law against bestiality, within six months passed a bill making bestiality illegal.

When such laws are proposed, they are never questioned or debated. Pornography involving sex with animals is widely illegal, even in most countries where bestiality itself is not explicitly outlawed. In the United States , zoophilic pornography would be considered obscene if it did not meet the standards of the Miller Test and therefore is not openly sold, mailed, distributed or imported across state boundaries or within states which prohibit it. Under U. Production and mere possession appears to be legal, however.

Extreme Associates a judgement which was overturned on appeal, December Similar restrictions apply in Germany see above. In New Zealand the possession, making or distribution of material promoting bestiality is illegal. The potential use of media for pornographic movies was seen from the start of the era of silent film. Polissons and Galipettes re-released as " The Good Old Naughty Days " is a collection of early French silent films for brothel use, including some animal pornography, dating from around — Material featuring sex with animals is widely available on the Internet, due to its ease of production.

Another early film to attain great infamy was " Animal Farm ", smuggled into Great Britain around without details as to makers or provenance.

Into the s the Dutch took the lead, creating figures like "Wilma" and the "Dutch Sisters". Many Hungarian mainstream performers also appeared anonymously in animal pornography in their early careers. For example, Suzy Spark. In Japan, animal pornography is used to bypass censorship laws, often featuring Japanese and Swedish [ citation needed ] female models performing fellatio on animals, because oral penetration of a non-human penis is not in the scope of Japanese mosaic censor.

While primarily underground, there are a number of animal pornography actresses who specialize in bestiality movies. In the UK Section 63 of the Criminal Justice and Immigration Act criminalises possession of realistic pornographic images depicting sex with animals see extreme pornography , including fake images and simulated acts, as well as images depicting sex with dead animals, where no crime has taken place in the production.

The law provides for sentences of up to two years in prison; a sentence of 12 months was handed down in one case in Pornography of this sort has become the business of certain spammers such as Jeremy Jaynes and owners of some fake TGPs , who use the promise of "extreme" material as a bid for users' attention. Infections that are transmitted from animals to humans are called zoonoses.

Some zoonoses may be transferred through casual contact, but others are much more readily transferred by activities that expose humans to the semen , vaginal fluids, urine , saliva , feces and blood of animals. Examples of zoonoses are Brucellosis , Q fever , leptospirosis , and toxocariasis. Therefore, sexual activity with animals is, in some instances, a high risk activity.

Allergic reactions to animal semen may occur, including anaphylaxis. Bites and other trauma from penetration or trampling may occur. The love of animals is not necessarily sexual in nature. In psychology and sociology the word "zoophilia" is sometimes used without sexual implications. Being fond of animals in general, or as pets, is accepted in Western society, and is usually respected or tolerated. However, the word zoophilia is used to mean a sexual preference towards animals, which makes it [] a paraphilia.

Some zoophiles may not act on their sexual attraction to animals. People who identify as zoophiles may feel their love for animals is romantic rather than purely sexual, and say this makes them different from those committing entirely sexually motivated acts of bestiality. An online survey which recruited participants over the internet concluded that prior to the arrival of widespread computer networking , most zoophiles would not have known other zoophiles, and for the most part, zoophiles engaged in bestiality secretly, or told only trusted friends, family or partners.

The internet and its predecessors made people able to search for information on topics which were not otherwise easily accessible and to communicate with relative safety and anonymity. Because of the diary-like intimacy of blogs and the anonymity of the internet, zoophiles had the ideal opportunity to "openly" express their sexuality.

These groups rapidly drew together zoophiles, some of whom also created personal and social websites and internet forums. By around —, the wide social net had evolved. Weinberg and Williams observe that the internet can socially integrate an incredibly large number of people. Further, while the farm boys Kinsey researched might have been part of a rural culture in which sex with animals was a part, the sex itself did not define the community.

The zoophile community is not known to be particularly large compared to other subcultures which make use of the internet, so Weinberg and Williams surmised its aims and beliefs would likely change little as it grew. Those particularly active on the internet may not be aware of a wider subculture, as there is not much of a wider subculture [ clarification needed ] , Weinberg and Williams felt the virtual zoophile group would lead the development of the subculture.

There also exist websites which aim to provide support and social assistance to zoophiles including resources to help and rescue abused or mistreated animals , but these are not usually well publicized. Such work is often undertaken as needed by individuals and friends, within social networks, and by word of mouth. One notable early attempt at creating a zoophile support structure focused on social and psychological support was the newsgroup soc. Zoophiles tend to experience their first zoosexual feelings during adolescence, and tend to be secretive about it, hence limiting the ability for non-Internet communities to form: [].

It was an extension of my affection for the dog and of my discovery of sex. He's a male. I'm a male. I wanted to make him feel good.

I definitely knew I wasn't going to be talking to my parents or my friends about this. Because of its controversial nature, people have developed arguments both for [] and against [] zoophilia. Arguments for and against zoosexual activity from a variety of sources, including religious, moral, ethical, psychological, medical and social. Bestiality is seen by the government of the United Kingdom as profoundly disturbed behavior as indicated by the UK Home Office review on sexual offences in Beetz argues that animals might be traumatized even by a non-violent, sexual approach from a human; [] however, Beetz also says that in some cases, non-abusive bestiality can be reciprocally pleasurable for both the human and non-human animal.

An argument from human dignity is given by Wesley J. Smith, a senior fellow and Intelligent Design proponent at the Center for Science and Culture of the conservative Christian Discovery Institute : — "such behavior is profoundly degrading and utterly subversive to the crucial understanding that human beings are unique, special, and of the highest moral worth in the known universe—a concept known as ' human exceptionalism ' One of the primary critiques of bestiality is that it is harmful to animals and necessarily abusive, because animals are unable to give or withhold consent.

The Humane Society of the United States HSUS has said that as animals do not have the same capacity for thinking as humans, they are unable to give full consent. The HSUS takes the position that all sexual activity between humans and animals is abusive, whether it involves physical injury or not. Frank Ascione stated that "bestiality may be considered abusive even in cases when physical harm to an animal does not occur.

Some defenders of bestiality argue that the issue of sexual consent is irrelevant because many legal human practices such as semen collection , artificial insemination , hunting, laboratory testing , and slaughtering animals for meat do not involve the consent of the animal. Such procedures are probably more disturbing physically and psychologically than acts of zoophilia would be, yet the issue of consent on the part of the animal is never raised in the discussion of such procedures.

To confine the 'right' of any animal strictly to acts of zoophilia is thus to make a law [against zoophilia] based not on reason but on moral prejudice, and to breach the constitutional rights of zoophiles to due process and equality before the law.

Miletski believes that "Animals are capable of sexual consent — and even initiation — in their own way. Most people can tell if an animal does not like how it is being petted, because it will move away. An animal that is liking being petted pushes against the hand, and seems to enjoy it. Central Command, told reporters the dog was injured when it came in contact with the cables as it pursued al-Baghdadi in a tunnel underneath a compound in northwestern Syria.

McKenzie said the dog has worked with special operations forces for four years and taken part in about 50 missions. He said such working dogs are 'critical members of our forces. The views expressed in the contents above are those of our users and do not necessarily reflect the views of MailOnline. Share this article Share. Yesterday, a WH official told the pool that Conan was a girl but later said the dog was actually Share or comment on this article: New confusion over Conan the hero Army dog's sex after Pentagon says the animal is female e-mail Comments Share what you think.

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